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Encyclopedia of Caves and Karst Science - John Gunn, Editor

Encyclopedia of Caves and Karst Science


John Gunn, Editor

Fitzroy Dearborn 
An imprint of theTaylor  and Francis Group 
New York London


2004



 CONTENTS

 Board of Advisers ii
 Editor’s Introduction vi
 Alphabetical List of Entries xi
 Thematic List of Entries xx

 Encyclopedia of Caves and Karst Science 1

 Notes on Contributors 1683

 Index 1724 


ALPHABETICAL LIST OF ENTRIES

A
Accidents and Rescue
Adaptation: Behavioural
Adaptation: Eyes
Adaptation: Genetics
Adaptation: Morphological (External)
Adaptation: Morphological (Internal)
Adaptation: Physiological
Africa, North
Africa, South: Archaeological Caves
Africa, Sub-Saharan
Africa: Biospeleology
Aggtelek and Slovak Karst, Hungary-Slovakia
Aggtelek Caves, Hungary-Slovakia: Archaeology
Akiyoshi-dai Karst and Caves, Japan
Alpine Karst
Altamira Cave, Spain: Archaeology
America, Central
America, Central and Caribbean Islands: Biospeleology
America, Central: Archaeological Caves
America, North: Archaeological Caves
America, North: Biospeleology
America, North: History
America, South
America, South: Biospeleology
America, South: History
Amphibia
Amphibia: Proteus
Anchialine Habitats
Annelida
Antarctica
Appalachian Mountains, United States
Arachnida
Arachnida: Aranae (Spiders)
Arachnida: Acari (Mites and Ticks)
Arachnida: Minor Groups
Archaeologists
Archaeology of Caves: History
Ardèche Caves, France: Archaeology 
Art in Caves
Art in Caves: History
Art Showing Caves
Art: Cave Art in Australasia
Art: Cave Art in Europe
Art: Cave Art in the Americas
Asia, Central
Asia, Northeast
Asia, Northeast: History
Asia, Southeast
Asia, Southeast Islands
Asia, Southeast: Archaeological Caves
Asia, Southeast: Biospeleology
Asia, Southeast: History
Asia, Southwest
Asiago Plateau, Italy
Atapuerca Caves, Spain: Archaeology
Australia
Australia: Archaeological and Paleontological Caves
Australia: Biospeleology
Australia: History
Aves (Birds)
B
Bambuí Karst, Brazil
Bauxite Deposits in Karst
Bear Rock Karst, Canada
Belgium: Archaeological Caves
Belize River Caves
Biodiversity in Hypogean Waters
Biodiversity in Terrestrial Cave Habitats
Biofilms
Biokarstification
Biology of Caves
Biospeleologists
Blue Holes of the Bahamas
Boa Vista, Toca, Brazil
Books on Caving
Britain and Ireland: Archaeological and Paleontological Caves
Britain and Ireland: Biospeleology
Britain and Ireland: History
Burials in Caves
Burren Glaciokarst, Ireland 
C
Calcareous Alps, Austria
Canada
Canary Islands: Biospeleology
Cape Range, Australia: Biospeleology Carbon Dioxide-enriched Cave Air
Carbonate Karst
Carbonate Minerals: Precipitation
Caribbean Islands
Caribbean Islands: History
Carlsbad Cavern and Lechuguilla Cave, United States
Carmel Caves, Israel: Archaeology
Castleguard Cave, Canada
Caucasus, Georgia
Caves
Caves in Fiction
Caves in History: The Eastern Mediterranean
Cerknica Polje, Slovenia: History
Cheju-do Lava Caves, South Korea
Chemistry of Natural Karst Waters
Chillagoe and Mitchell-Palmer Karsts, Australia
China
China: Archaeological Caves
Chiroptera (Bats)
Climate of Caves
Coastal Karst
Cockpit Country Cone Karst, Jamaica
Colonization
Communications in Caves
Condensation Corrosion
Cone Karst
Conservation: Cave Biota
Conservation: Protected Areas
Construction on Karst
Crevice Caves
Crimea, Ukraine
Crustacea
Crustacea: Amphipoda
Crustacea: Copepoda
Crustacea: Decapoda (Shrimps, Crayfish, Crabs)
Crustacea: Isopoda (Aquatic)
Crustacea: Isopoda: Oniscidea (Woodlice)
Crustacea: Ostracoda
Crustacea: Syncarida
Cuba
Cupp-Coutunn Cave, Turkmenistan 
D
Dams and Reservoirs on Karst
Dating Methods: Archaeological
Dating of Karst Landforms
Dent de Crolles Cave System, France
Di Feng Dong, China
Dinaric Karst
Dinaric Karst: Biospeleology
Dinaride Poljes
Disease
Dissolution: Carbonate Rocks
Dissolution: Evaporite Rocks
Dissolution: Silicate Rocks
Diving in Caves
Dolines
Draenen, Ogof Draenen, Wales
E
Edwards Aquifer, United States
Edwards Aquifer, United States: Biospeleology
Encantado, Sistema del Rio, Puerto Rico
Entrance Habitats
Environmental Impacts Assessment
Erosion Rates: Field Measurements
Erosion Rates: Theoretical Models
Europe, Alpine
Europe, Balkans and Carpathians
Europe, Central
Europe, Central: Archaeological Caves
Europe, Central: History
Europe, Mediterranean
Europe, Mediterranean: Archaeological and Paleontological Caves
Europe, North
Evaporite Karst
Evolution of Hypogean Fauna
Exploration Societies
Exploring Caves
Extraterrestrial Caves
F
Films in Caves
Floral Resources
Fluviokarst
Folklore and Mythology
Food Resources
Forests on Karst 
France: Biospeleology
France: History
France, Southern Massif Central
Frasassi Caves, Italy
G
Geophysical Detection of Caves and Karstic Voids
Geoscientists
Gibraltar Caves: Archaeology
Glacier Caves and Glacier Pseudokarst
Glacierized and Glaciated Karst
Golondrinas and the Giant Shafts of Mexico
Grand Canyon, United States
Groundwater in Karst
Groundwater in Karst: Borehole Hydrology
Groundwater in Karst: Conceptual Models
Groundwater in Karst: Mathematical Models
Groundwater Pollution: Dispersed
Groundwater Pollution: Point Sources
Groundwater Pollution: Remediation
Groundwater Protection
Guano
Gunpowder
H
Ha Long Bay, Vietnam
Hawaii Lava Tube Caves, United States
Hawaiian Islands: Biospeleology
Highways on Karst
Hölloch, Switzerland
Hongshui River Fengcong Karst, China
Huanglong and Jiuzhaigou, China


THEMATIC LIST OF ENTRIES

Archaeology, Paleontology, and Cave Art
Africa, South: Archaeological Caves
Aggtelek Caves, Hungary-Slovakia: Archaeology
Altamira Cave, Spain: Archaeology
America, Central: Archaeological Caves
America, North: Archaeological Caves
Ardèche Caves, France: Archaeology
Archaeologists
Archaeology of Caves: History
Art in Caves
Art in Caves: History
Art: Cave Art in Australasia
Art: Cave Art in Europe
Art: Cave Art in the Americas
Asia, Southeast: Archaeological Caves
Atapuerca Caves, Spain: Archaeology
Australia: Archaeological and Paleontological Caves
Belgium: Archaeological Caves
Britain and Ireland: Archaeological and Paleontological Caves
Burials in Caves
Carmel Caves, Israel: Archaeology
China: Archaeological Caves
Dating Methods: Archaeological
Europe, Central: Archaeological Caves
Europe, Mediterranean: Archaeological and Paleontological Caves
Gibraltar Caves: Archaeology
Human Occupation of Caves
Paleontology: Animal Remains in Caves
Shanidar Cave, Iraq: Archaeology
Vézère Archaeological Caves, France
Biospeleology (Speleobiology)
Ecology and Ecological Processes
Biodiversity in Hypogean Waters
Biodiversity in Terrestrial Cave Habitats
Biofilms
Biology of Caves
Biokarstification
Food Resources 
Guano
Microorganisms in Caves
Paleontology: Animal Remains in Caves
Sediments: Biogenic
Subterranean Ecology
Habitats
Anchialine Habitats
Entrance Habitats
Interstitial Habitats (Aquatic)
Interstitial Habitats (Terrestrial)
Marine Cave Habitats
Subterranean Habitats
Thermal Water Habitats
Cave Ecology and Man
Biospeleologists
Conservation: Cave Biota
Folklore and Mythology
Groundwater Pollution: Dispersed
Groundwater Pollution: Point Source
Tourist Caves: Algae and Lampenflora
Regional Subterranean Faunas
Africa: Biospeleology
America, Central and Caribbean Islands: Biospelology
America, North: Biospeleology
America, South: Biospeleology
Asia, Southeast: Biospeleology
Australia: Biospeleology
Britain and Ireland: Biospeleology
Canary Islands: Biospeleology
Dinaric Karst: Biospelology
France: Biospeleology
Richest Cave Faunas
Cape Range, Australia: Biospeleology
Edwards Aquifer, United States: Biospeleology
Hawaiian Islands: Biospeleology
Mammoth Cave, United States: Biospeleology
Movile Cave, Romania
Postojna-Planina Cave System, Slovenia: Biospeleology
Salukkan Kallang, Indonesia: Biospeleology
Vjetrenica, Bosnia-Herzegovina: Biospeleology
Walsingham Caves, Bermuda: Biospeleology
Evolution of Subterranean Fauna
Adaptation: Behavioural
Adaptation: Eyes
Adaptation: Genetics
Adaptation: Morphological (External) 
Adaptation: Morphological (Internal)
Adaptation: Physiological
Colonization
Evolution of Hypogean Fauna
Organisms: Classification
Speciation
Important Subterranean Taxa
Amphibia
Amphibia: Proteus
Annelida
Arachnida
Arachnida: Acari (Mites)
Arachnida: Araneae (Spiders)
Arachnida: Minor Groups
Aves (Birds)
Chiroptera (Bats)
Crustacea
Crustacea: Amphipoda
Crustacea: Copepoda
Crustacea: Decapoda (Shrimps, Crayfish, Crabs)
Crustacea: Isopoda (Aquatic)
Crustacea: Isopoda-Oniscidea (Woodlice)
Crustacea: Ostracoda
Crustacea: Syncarida
Insecta: Apterygota
Insecta: Coleoptera (Beetles)
Insecta: Pterygota
Invertebrates: Minor Groups
Mollusca
Myriapoda (Centipedes and Millipedes)
Pisces (Fishes)
Pisces (Fishes): Amblyopsidae
Caves and Caving
Cave Media
Art Showing Caves
Books on Caves
Caves in Fiction
Films in Caves
Folklore and Mythology
Journals on Caves
Music about and in Caves
Stamps and Postcards
Caving
Accidents and Rescue
Communications in Caves 
Diving in Caves
Exploring Caves
Photographing Caves
Radiolocation
Recreational Caving
Surveying Caves
Uses of caves
Burials in Caves
Human Occupation of Caves
Military Uses of Caves
Music about and in Caves
Religious Sites
Speleotherapy
Tourist Caves
Caves and Karst Regions
Caves and Cave Systems
Belize River Caves
Blue Holes of Bahamas
Boa Vista, Brazil
Carlsbad Cavern and Lechuguilla Cave, United States
Castleguard Cave, Canada
Cheju-do Lava Caves, South Korea
Cupp-Coutunn Cave, Turkmenistan
Dent de Crolles Cave System, France
Di Feng Dong, China
Draenen, Ogof Draenen, Wales
Encantado, Sistema del Rio, Puerto Rico
Frasassi Caves, Italy
Golondrinas and the Giant Shafts of Mexico
Hawaii Lava Tube Caves, United States
Hölloch, Switzerland
Huautla Cave System, Mexico
Jeita Cave, Lebanon
Krubera Cave, Georgia
Mammoth Cave Region, United States
Movile Cave, Romania
Nakanai Caves, Papua New Guinea
Postojna-Planina Cave System, Slovenia
Siebenhengste, Switzerland
Škocjanske Jama, Slovenia
Sof Omar Cave, Ethiopia
Spannagel Cave, Austria
Villa Luz, Cueva de, Mexico
Wind and Jewel Caves, United States
Karst Regions
Africa, North
Africa, Sub-Saharan
Aggtelek and Slovak Karst, Hungary-Slovakia
Akiyoshi-dai, Japan
America, Central
America, South
Antarctica
Appalachian Mountains, United States
Asia, Central
Asia, Northeast
Asia, Southeast
Asia, Southeast Islands
Asia, Southwest
Asiago Plateau, Italy
Australia
Bambuí Karst, Brazil
Bear Rock Karst, Canada
Burren Glaciokarst, Eire
Calcareous Alps, Austria
Canada
Caribbean Islands
Caucasus, Georgia
Chillagoe and Mitchell-Palmer Karsts, Australia
China
Cockpit Country Cone Karst, Jamaica
Crimea, Ukraine
Cuba
Dinaric Karst
Dinaride Poljes
Edwards Aquifer and the Texas Karst, United States
Europe, Alpine
Europe, Balkans and Carpathians
Europe, Central
Europe, Mediterranean
Europe, North
France, Southern Massif Central
Grand Canyon, United States
Ha Long Bay, Vietnam
Hongshui River Fengcong Karst, China
Huanglong and Jiuzhaigou, China
Indian Subcontinent
Iran
Kaijende Arete and Pinnacle Karst, Papua New Guinea
Kanin Massif, Slovenia-Italy
Khammouan, Laos-Vietnam
Kras, Slovenia 
Madagascar
Mendip Hills, England
Mona, Puerto Rico
Mulu, Sarawak
Nahanni Karst, Canada
New Zealand
Nullarbor Plain, Australia
Pamir and Tien Shan Karst, Asia
Pamukkale, Turkey
Patagonia Marble Karst, Chile
Peak District, England
Picos de Europa, Spain
Pierre Saint-Martin, France-Spain
Pinega Gypsum Caves, Russia
Plitvice Lakes, Croatia
Quartzite Caves of South America
Russia and Ukraine
Sedom Salt Karst, Israel
Selma Plateau Caves, Oman
Sewu Cone Karst, Java
Shilin Stone Forest, China
Siberia, Russia
Turkey
Ukraine Gypsum Caves and Karst
United States of America
Vercors, France
Yangshuo Karst, China
Yorkshire Dales, England
Yucatán Phreas, Mexico
Conservation and Management
Carbon Dioxide-enriched Cave Air
Conservation: Cave Biota
Conservation: Protected Areas
Environmental Impact Assessment
Groundwater Pollution: Dispersed
Groundwater Pollution: Point Source
Groundwater Pollution: Remediation
Groundwater Protection
Karst Resources and Values
Monitoring
Ramsar Sites—Wetlands of International Importance
Religious Sites
Restoration of Caves and Speleothem Repair
Tourist Caves
Tourist Caves: Air Quality 
Tourist Caves: Airborne Debris
Tourist Caves: Algae and Lampenflora
Wilderness
World Heritage Sites
Geoscience
Caves and Speleogenesis
Caves
Extraterrestrial Caves
Hydraulics of Caves
Inception of Caves
Morphology of Caves
Morphometry of Caves
Paragenesis
Patterns of Caves
Speleogenesis
Speleogenesis: Coastal and Oceanic Settings
Speleogenesis: Computer Models
Speleogenesis: Deep-seated and Confined Settings
Speleogenesis: Unconfined Settings
Speleogenesis Theories: Early
Speleogenesis Theories: Post-1890
Deposits in Caves
Carbonate Minerals: Precipitation
Ice in Caves
Minerals in Caves
Palaeoenvironments: Clastic Sediments
Palaeoenvironments: Speleothems
Palynology
Sediments: Allochthonous Clastic
Sediments: Autochthonous Clastic
Sediments: Biogenic
Speleothems: Carbonate
Speleothems: Evaporite
Speleothems: Luminescence
Karst Geomorphology
Alpine Karst
Carbonate Karst
Coastal Karst
Cone Karst
Dolines
Evaporite Karst
Fluviokarst
Glaciated and Glacierized Karst
Karren
Karst 
Karst Evolution
Morphometry of Karst
Paleokarst
Phytokarst
Poljes
Ponors
Silicate Karst
Solution Breccias
Springs
Stripe Karst
Syngenetic Karst
Tower Karst
Travertine
Valleys in Karst
Processes and Techniques
Biokarstification
Carbon Dioxide-enriched Cave Air
Chemistry of Natural Karst Waters
Climate of Caves
Condensation Corrosion
Dating of Karst Landforms
Dissolution: Carbonate Rocks
Dissolution: Evaporite Rocks
Dissolution: Silicate Rocks
Erosion Rates: Field Measurements
Erosion Rates: Theoretical Models
Geophysical Detection of Caves and Karstic Voids
Groundwater in Karst
Groundwater in Karst: Borehole Hydrology
Groundwater in Karst: Conceptual Models
Groundwater in Karst: Mathematical Models
Microbial Processes in Caves
Palaeotectonics from Speleothems
Radon in Caves
Water Tracing
Pseudokarst
Crevice Caves
Glacier Caves and Glacier Pseudokarst
Littoral caves
Piping Caves and Badlands Pseudokarst
Pseudokarst
Talus Caves
Volcanic Caves
History
America, North: History 
America, South: History
Archaeologists
Archaeology of Caves: History
Art in Caves: History
Asia, Northeast: History
Asia, Southeast: History
Australia: History
Biospeleologists
Britain and Ireland: History
Caribbean Islands: History
Caves in History: The Eastern Mediterranean
Cerknica Polje, Slovenia: History
Europe, Central: History
Exploration Societies
France: History
Geoscientists
Gunpowder
Karst Hydrology: History
Soviet Union: Speleological History
Speleogenesis Theories: Early
Speleogenesis Theories: Post-1890
Speleologists
Speleothem Studies: History
Tourism and Caves: History
Vulcanospeleology: History
Water Tracing: History
Resources and Development
Bauxite Deposits in Karst
Construction on Karst
Dams and Reservoirs on Karst
Disease
Floral Resources
Forests on Karst
Guano
Gunpowder
Highways on Karst
Hydrocarbons in Karst
Karst Resources and Values
Karst Water Resources
Limestone as a Mineral Resource
Mineral Deposits in Karst
Organic Resources in Caves
Ornamental Use of Limestone
Quarrying of Limestone
Religious Sites 
Soils on Carbonate Karst
Soil Erosion and Sedimentation
Sulfide Minerals in Karst
Tunnelling and Underground Dams in Karst


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