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Cave Exploration in Slovenia Discovering Over 350 New Caves During Motorway Construction on Classical Karst

Cave Exploration in Slovenia

Discovering Over 350 New Caves During Motorway Construction on Classical Karst 



by Martin Knez & Tadej Slabe


Springer

 International Publishing AG


2015




Preface 

  Thanks to the successful cooperation with companies and institutes in charge of planning and building motorways, i.e. the Motorway Company of the Republic of Slovenia (DARS), the Engineering Company for Public Roads that was renamed DRI Investment Management and colleagues from the former Institute for the Protection of Natural and Cultural Heritage of Slovenia–the Nova Gorica Regional Office and the Institute of the Republic of Slovenia for Nature Conservation–the Nova Gorica Regional Unit, karstologists are able to study and record fascinating karst phenomena discovered in the course of motorway construction, which represent an important part of the Slovenian natural and cultural heritage. Furthermore, such collaboration enables up-to-date application of the fundamental knowledge of karstology to the planning of life in this sensitive region.

  During construction, the earthmoving works have revealed a cross-section of the original karst surface, of the low and mostly covered karst of the Dolenjska region featuring subsoil stone forests and of the unique karst that can be observed in the breccia of Vipavska dolina (Vipava Valley). Over 350 new caves were opened in the karst region, including unroofed caves. 

  Research results have led to a number of new findings on the manner of the karst surface and underground formation, on the flow of water through the karst aquifers and on the evolution of our karst on various types of rocks and in various conditions. 

  The first part sums up the research results obtained during construction on the Classical Karst, newly discovered karst phenomena, research of sediments and flowstone, and dating thereof. It continues with presentation of construction on low and covered karst of the Dolenjska region and on the breccia of the Vipava Valley. The next section is dedicated to the planning of traffic roads. The book concludes with studies on karst waters, their protection and biological characteristics. 

  It is our aim to preserve as many karst phenomena as possible, which is quite a challenge given that many caves are hidden beneath roadways and behind the rims of tunnels.

  The collaboration described above can serve as an example for planning and implementing various activities in the karst landscape, for familiarization with and for protection of the Slovenian natural and cultural heritage.

   The book was written by researchers of the ZRC SAZU Karst Research Institute. Most of the authors also teach the Karstology doctoral study programme at the University of Gorica Graduate School and are members of the Unesco Chair on Karst Education. The study findings are effectively used in planning and implementing the programme in terms of the course content covering the development of caves and karst aquifers as well as development challenges on the karst.

  Leon Drame, Franjo Drole and Jure Hajna took part in the field research and the compilation of documentation, and Mateja Zadel helped with laboratory work. Matters of administration were handled by Sonja Stamenković.

   The palaeomagnetic research concerning the age of the cave sediments was conducted in collaboration with colleagues from the Institute of Geology, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic. The subsoil shaping of the karst surface was developed also within the Yunnan University International Joint Research Centre for Karstology and the Yunnan International Karst Environmental Laboratory.

  Technical and text editing was provided by Alenka Možina, and translations by Milena Djokić, Andreja Golob, Darja Mevlja and David Bošković. Pictures were made by Iztok Sajko and Tamara Korošec.
   The book was produced with the support of the Slovenian Research Agency. We would also like to extend our gratitude to Acad. Prof. Andrej Kranjc, Ph.D., and Assist. Prof. Marko Komac, Ph.D., for reviewing our work. Martin Knez Tadej Slabe

Contents
1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1.1 Researching the Karst Surface and New Caves in the Course of Construction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
1.2 Research Led to New Insights About Karst Development. . . 6
1.3 Road Planning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
1.4 Cave Preservation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
1.5 Karst Protection in Light of Motorway Construction and Usage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
1.6 Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16

Part I Classical Karst: Construction Monitoring
2 Development and Karstification of the Karst Aquifer
as Discovered Between Klanec and Črni Kal . . . . . . . .  . . . . 19
2.1 Karst Surface and Karstification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
2.1.1 Alveolinid-Nummulitid Limestones . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
2.1.2 Flysch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
2.1.3 Karstification of the Alveolinid-Nummulitid
Limestone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
2.2 Epikarst . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
2.3 Discovered Caves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
2.4 Aquifer Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
2.5 Cave Preservation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
2.6 Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
3 Unroofed Caves Near Kozina and Their Identification . . .  . 31
3.1 Unroofed Caves and the Karst Surface. . . . . . . .. . . . . . 32
3.2 Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . 37
4 The Section Between Divača and Kozina Revealed Many
Characteristics of Karst Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
4.1 Karst Surface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
4.2 Newly Discovered Caves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . 40
4.3 Motorway Construction and Karst Features . . . . . .. . . . 44
4.4 Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
vii
5 Great Cavernosity Between Dane and Fernetiči Points
to Diverse Karst Formation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
5.1 Caves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
5.2 Road Construction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
5.3 Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
6 Unroofed Caves Discovered on the Route Between Čebulovica
and Dane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
6.1 Karst Near Divača. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
6.2 Dolines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
6.3 Caves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
6.3.1 Cavernosity of Different Rock Types. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
6.3.2 Old Caves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
6.3.3 Shafts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
6.3.4 Road Construction and Caves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
6.4 Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . 64

Part II Classical Karst: Newly Discovered Significant Karst Features
7 Unroofed Caves Provide Important Clues
to the Karst Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . 69
7.1 Identifying Unroofed Caves on the Karst Surface . . . . . . . 69
7.1.1 Types of Unroofed Caves. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
7.1.2 Patches of Karst Terrain Which Are Covered
by Unique Soil and Vegetation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
7.1.3 Flowstone and Cave Alluvium on the Karst Surface . . . 74
7.1.4 Doline-like Shapes and Strings of Dolines . . . . . . . . . . 74
7.1.5 Notches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
7.1.6 Variegated Shapes of Cave Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
7.2 Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
8 The Large Unroofed Cave Near Povir . . . . . . .. . . . . . . 77
8.1 Speleological Characteristics of the Brezstropa Jama
Unroofed Cave . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
8.1.1 Discovery and Exploration of the Cave . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
8.1.2 Shape of the Excavated Cave . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
8.1.3 Rock Relief on the Passage Walls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
8.1.4 Forms Created Due to the Filling of the Passage
with Sediments and Soil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
8.1.5 Cave Sediments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
8.2 Comparison of Sediments from Different Caves Along the Motorway Route . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
8.3 The Brezstropa Jama Unroofed Cave in Time and Space . . . 85
viii Contents
9 Origin and Mineral Composition of Clastic Sediments
on the Karst Surface Around Divača . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . 89
9.1 Sites and Description of Clastic Sediments in Karst Depressions
Around Divača . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
9.1.1 The Brezstropa Jama Unroofed Cave Near Povir. . . . . . 90
9.1.2 Sediments from Two Filled-in Caves South of Povir . . . 95
9.1.3 Filled-in Cave from the Divaški Hrib Hill . . . . . . . . . . 96
9.1.4 The Unroofed Cave at Grintavca. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
9.1.5 Sediments from the Unroofed Cave in Bojni Dol . . . . . 99
9.2 Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
10 Composition of Sediments in Dolines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
10.1 Sediments from Dolines. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
10.1.1 Doline No. V1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
10.1.2 Doline No. V2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
10.1.3 Doline No. V3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
10.1.4 Doline No. V4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
10.1.5 Infilled Cave with Stalactites and Stalagmites . . . . . . 109
10.1.6 Doline No. V5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
10.1.7 Doline No. V6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
10.2 Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  . . . . 111
11 Cave Sediments from the Infilled Cave Near Divača. . .  . . . 117
11.1 Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
11.2 Infilled Cave Located South of Divača . . . . . . .. . . . . 119
11.2.1 Results of Mineralogical Analyses. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
11.2.2 Results of Palaeomagnetic Analyses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120
11.3 Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  . . . . . . . . . 124
12 Palaeomagnetic Research of an Unroofed Cave Near Kozina .... . 125
12.1 Morphological and Geological Circumstances . . . .. . . 125
12.2 Site Location and Characteristics. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . 125
12.3 Description of the Profile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126
12.4 Palaeomagnetic Analyses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127
12.4.1 Laboratory Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128
12.4.2 Palaeomagnetic Research Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128
12.4.3 Magnetostratigraphic Research Results. . . . . . . . . . . . . 129
12.5 Findings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130
12.6 Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132
13 Sediments in the S-647 Cave in the Kastelec Tunnel. .  . . . . 135
13.1 Speleomorphological Description of the Cave . . .. . . . . . 136
13.2 Cave Sediments . . . . . . . . . . . . .  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138
13.3 Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142
Contents ix
14 The History of Karstification on the Upper Cretaceous
and Lower Paleogene Limestones in the Wider Kozina Area. .. 143
14.1 Geology of the Area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143
14.2 Upper Cretaceous Paleokarst . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146
14.2.1 Description. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146
14.2.2 Interpretation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148
14.3 Current Karst System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  . . . . . . . 152
14.3.1 Description. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152
14.3.2 Interpretation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155
14.4 Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  . . . . . 161

Part III Comparison with Low and Covered Karst and Karst in Breccia: Dolenjska region
15 The Dolenjska Karst Area Uncovered on the Bič–Korenitka
Motorway Section. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  . . . . . 165
15.1 Geological Characteristics of the Area . . . . . . . . . . . . 165
15.2 Uncovered Karst Formations . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . 167
15.2.1 Karst Uvalas with Estavelles. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167
15.2.2 Karren . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168
15.2.3 Caves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171
15.3 Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173
16 Karst Formations Uncovered on the Pluska–Ponikve
Motorway Section. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175
16.1 Subsoil Karst Formations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175
16.2 Caves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . 176
16.3 Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183
17 Stone Forest Near Trebnje . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185
17.1 Morphological and Geological Features of the Area .  . . . 185
17.2 The Shape of the Stone Forest and Its Columns,
and Their Rock Relief . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  . . . . . 186
17.3 Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . 190
18 Karst Formations Uncovered on the Ponikve–Hrastje
Motorway Section. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . 191
18.1 Karst Surface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  . . . . . . . 191
18.2 Caves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  . . . . 193
18.3 Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195
19 Subsoil Stone Forests and Other Karst Formations
Between Hrastje and Lešnica. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197
19.1 Morphological and Geological Characteristics of the Region. . . . 197
19.2 Karren Surface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . 200
19.3 Subsoil Stone Forests . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . 202
19.4 Karst Cavities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . 204
19.5 Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206
x Contents
20 Palaeomagnetic Results from the Filled Karst Depression
on the Motorway Section Hrastje–Lešnica . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . 207
20.1 Profile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207
20.1.1 Lithology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207
20.1.2 Palaeomagnetic Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207
20.2 Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  . . . . . . . 212
21 The Karst Between Lešnica and Kronovo, Revealed
During the Motorway Construction . . . . . . . . . .  . . . . . 213
21.1 Newly Discovered Karst Phenomena . . . . . . . . . . . . 213
21.1.1 Subsoil Stone Forests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213
21.1.2 Underground Cavities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 218
21.2 Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219

Part IV Comparison with Low and Covered Karst and Karst in Breccia: The Vipava Valley
22 The Karst in the Breccia of Rebrnice in the Vipava Valley ... 223
22.1 Geological Conditions in the Area of the Road Route . . . 224
22.2 Geomorphological Development of the Slopes
of Mount Nanos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 226
22.3 Characteristic Relief Forms in the Motorway Route. . . . . 229
22.3.1 Structural Forms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229
22.3.2 The Structural Level of Mount Nanos . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229
22.3.3 Relief Forms on Carbonate Rubble or Breccia . . . . . . . 230
22.3.4 Breakdown Forms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 230
22.3.5 Breakdown Blocks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 230
22.3.6 Erosion Forms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 230
22.3.7 Hummocky Ground. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231
22.4 Anthropogenic Forms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  . . . . . . . 231
22.4.1 Paths Reshaped Due to Erosion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231
22.4.2 Escarpments, Piles and Dry Walls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231
22.5 Breccia Formation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231
22.6 Breccia Karstification and Cavities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233
22.7 Karstification of Flysch and of the Contact with Carbonates . . 236
22.8 Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241
23 Karst Phenomena Between Vipava and Selo . . .  . . . . . . . . 243
23.1 Geological Characteristics of the Region . . . . . . . . . . . . 243
23.2 Karst Cavernosity of the Rock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243
23.3 Along the Protective Archaeological Excavations
on the Motorway Route Between Log and Ajdovščina. . . . . . . . 244
23.4 Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 247
Contents xi

Part V Planning
24 Karstologic Research for the Engineering of a Preliminary
Design for the Motorway Section Bič–Hrastje,
Subsection Ponikve–Hrastje, Sv. Ana Variant . . . . . .. . . . . . . 251
24.1 Geomorphological Conditions. . . . . . . . . . . . .  . . . . . . . . 251
24.2 Caves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 254
24.3 Hydrogeological and Hydrological Conditions . . . . . . . 256
24.3.1 Hydrological Measurements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . 258
24.3.2 Directions and Velocities of the Underground
Flow of Water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 260
24.3.3 Physicochemical Properties and Water Quality . . . . . .. 262
24.3.4 The Importance of the Karst Water in the Area
of the Temenica River . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 263
24.4 Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  . . . . . . . . . 263
25 Planning of the Motorway in the Pivka and Reka Rivers Catchment
Areas, the Evaluation and Reduction of Impacts
on Known Caves. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 265
25.1 Geomorphological and Hydrogeological Situation
Along the Proposed Motorway . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 265
25.1.1 Possible Impacts Due to Motorway Construction
and Methodology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 266
25.2 Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 268
25.2.1 Direct Impact . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 268
25.2.2 Indirect Impact by Vibration. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 269
25.2.3 Downstream Indirect Impact by Waters . . . . . . . . . . . . 270
25.2.4 Upstream Indirect Impact by Water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 270
25.2.5 Hydrodynamical Impact . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 270
25.3 The Karstological/Speleological Mitigation and Optimization
of the Planned Motorway. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 271
25.4 Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 272

Part VI Construction and Use of Motorways with Regard to Karst Waters
26 Biological Assessment of Habitats and Fauna in the Škocjanske Jame Caves and Reka River in the Motorway Construction Area of Influence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  . . . . . . . . . . . 275
26.1 Description of Methods and Techniques for Biological
Sampling of Invertebrates in Aquatic Ecosystems . . . .. . . . . . 275
26.2 Biodiversity in the Underground Reka River . .  . . . . . . . 278
26.3 Fauna of Percolating Water in Škocjanske Jame Caves .. 279
26.4 Terrestrial Fauna of Škocjanske Jame Caves. . . . . . . . . . 280
26.5 Water Quality of the Reka River. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 281
xii Contents
27 Impact of Motorways on Karst Waters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 285
27.1 Motorways as a Source of Pollution . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . 285
27.1.1 Pollutants from Road Runoff . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 285
27.1.2 Motorway Runoff Impact on Biota . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 286
27.1.3 Protection and Remediation Measures . . . . . . . . . . . . . 286
27.2 Particularity of Motorway Runoff in Karst Areas . . . . . 288
27.2.1 Pollution of a Karst Water Source Due to the Spillage
of Gas Oil During a Traffic Accident . . . . . . . . . . . . . 289
27.2.2 Pollution of a Karst Water Source Due to the Spillage
of Gas Oil from a Warehouse for Oil Derivatives . . . . . 292
27.3 Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  . . . . . . . 296
28 Transfer of Contamination from Motorways Towards Karst Water Sources: The Example of the Malenščica Karst Spring.. 299
28.1 Measures for Limiting the Negative Impact of Motorways on Water Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 299
28.2 The Motorway in the Recharge Area of the Karst Water Source of Malenščica. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 301
28.3 The Composition of Water Flowing off the Motorway. . . 301
28.3.1 Initial Periodic Measurements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 301
28.3.2 Sampling During Precipitation Events . . . . . . . . . . . . . 304
28.4 The Composition of Water Flowing from the Oil Separator .. 307
28.5 Transfer of Contaminants Through the Karst Aquifer. . .  308
28.5.1 Tracer Test in the Area of the Oil Separator B at Postojna . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 309
28.6 Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 311
Regarding the Planning and the Construction of Slovenian Motorways
in the Karst Region . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 313
References. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 315


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الاسمبريد إلكترونيرسالة