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التطرف في درجات الحرارة لمحطات مختارة في العراق

التطرف في درجات الحرارة 


لمحطات مختارة في العراق




رسالة تقدم بها

مجيب رزوقي فريح عبد الزبيدي



إلى مجلس كلية التربية الجامعة المستنصرية 

وهي جزء من متطلبات نيل شهادة الماجستير آداب 

في الجغرافية الطبيعية



بإشراف

أ.م.د. أحلام عبد الجبار كاظم


1434هـ - 2013م




Extrem Temperature and its Synoptic Patterns for Selected Stations in Iraq


Submitted by

(Mujib rzuki fraih abd AL-Zubaidi)

submitted to council of the college of Education AL-Mustansiriyah University in partial fulfillment of the Requirement for the degree of M.A. in physical Geography


Supervised by

A.Prof. Dr. 

Ahlam Abdul-Jabbar Kadhim


1434 A.H 2013 A.D


Abstract

   Heat extremism is agreat differences in temperatures off the average, which appear frequently few, which represents the higest and lowest temperatures . An indicator of heat extremism level , which is most intense within continents . It classifies to several categories according to several criteria, for example, the standard time, or spatialor standard , intensity of , or extremism thermal power and was thus incorporates hot waves and cold waves, in addition to the daily extremes of temperature.
The study relied on the scientific analytical method and inferential as well as descriptive approach, with some statistical applications using programs (Min tab16 and excel) in order to define the concept of heat extremism, and the mechanism of calculating hot waves and cold waves. Hot waves define on the basis of high maximum daily temperatures about five degrees ( celsius) above the general average for atime , provided the continuation of this rise for at least three consecutive days, while the expense of cold waves on the basis of low minimum daily temperatures about five degrees (celsius) less than the general average for atime , and provided that the continuation of this decline for at least three consecutive days. This study also includes analyzing synoptic charts for several pressure levels (1000, 850, 500 millibar) to investigate the pressure systems that are closely affect and associate with daily heat extremisms as well as cold and hot waves.

   The results of the study, appear that the climate of Iraq characterized by extremism, whether in high temperatures or in decline, in form of waves or daily extremes. During the study period (1980-2010) totaled cold waves 362 wave distributed in the climatic stations of this study differently by 57 waves at Mosul station , 62 waves at Kirkuk station , 57 waves at Baghdad station , 41 waves at Rutbah station , 45 waves at Alhay station , 50 waves at Nasiriyah station , as well as 50 waves at Basrah station . while the total number of hot waves were 210 waves for the duration of the study, 37 waves at Mosul station , 32 waves at Kirkuk station , 32 waves at Baghdad station , 35 waves at Rutbah Station, 27 waves at Alhay station , 24 waves at Nasiriyah station , and 23 waves at Basrah station .


  The study also indicated that extremism in form of hot and cold days or waves increasing in Iraq , while there is decreasing in extremism in form of cold and hot days and wave .

 The study also concluded that depressions are the main reason for the outbreak of hot waves, especially , the seasonal Indian low, while the highs of cold air coming from the north and north-east and north-west of Iraq are responsible for the occurrence of cold waves, especially the European high and Siberian high.

  The study showed that Ridges that accompanies lows during the occurrence of hot waves , intensify and lengthened the wave, while Troughs intensify cold waves and the length of its survival.

  The study showed the presence of hot and cold daily extremes . These extremes are very similar to hot and cold waves in temperatures without exceeding three days, and these daily extremes take the same pattern as hot and cold waves in terms of appearance and recurrence. The total of hot daily extremes are 842 , distributed at the stations of study by 119 days at Mosul station , 133 days at Kirkuk station , 101 days at Baghdad station, 145 days at Rutbah station , 111 days at Alhay station ,127 days at Nasiriyah station , and 106 days at Basrah station , while the total of cold daily extremes are 1262 days , by 189 days at Mosul station , 150 days at Kirkuk station , 240 days at Baghdad station, 155 days at Rutbah station , 148 days at Alhay station , 203 days at Nasiriyah station, and 177 days at Basrah station.


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