ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOLOGY - Don Rrittner And Timothy L. McCabe, Ph.D.

كوكب الجغرافيا مارس 04, 2020 مارس 04, 2020
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Don Rrittner


Timothy L. McCabe, Ph.D.

Facts On File, Inc.



Acknowledgments    ix

Preface    xi

Introduction    xiii

Entries A–Z    1

Feature Essays:

“Blood Identification through the Ages”

by John C. Brenner and Demetra Xythalis    44

“Human Cytogenetics: Historical Overview and

Latest Developments”

by Betty Harrison     67

“The Karner Blue—New York’s Endangered Butterfly”

by Robert Dirig    111

“Insects and Man—An Exotic Dilemma”

by Timothy L. McCabe, Ph.D.    158

“Science and the Spiritual Factor”

by John McConnell  170

“Silk Degrees: A Tale of Moths and People, Part One”

by James G. (Spider) Barbour      200

“Sassafras and Its Lepidopteran Cohorts, or Bigger and Better Caterpillars through Chemistry”

by Timothy L. McCabe, Ph.D.   202

“Silk Degrees: A Tale of Moths and People, Part Two”

by James G. (Spider) Barbour   228

“Egyptian Mummies: Brief History and Radiological Studies”

by William A. Wagle, M.D.  233


Appendix I

Bibliography  357

Appendix II

Biology-Related Websites   363

Appendix III

Biology Software and Animations Sources  365

Appendix IV

Nobel Laureates Relating to Biology  367

Appendix V

Periodic Table of the Elements  377

Appendix VI

Biochemical Cycles 379

Appendix VII

The “Tree of Life”  381

Index  383

  Encyclopedia of Biology Copyright © 2004 by Don Rittner All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage or retrieval systems, without permission in writing from the publisher. For information contact: Facts On File, Inc. 132 West 31st Street New York NY 10001 Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Rittner, Don. Encyclopedia of biology / Don Rittner and Timothy L. McCabe. p. cm. Summary: Contains approximately 800 alphabetical entries, prose essays on important topics, line illustrations, and black-and-white photographs. Includes bibliographical references (p. ). ISBN 0-8160-4859-2 1. Biology—Encyclopedias, Juvenile. [1. Biology—Encyclopedias. 2. Encyclopedias and dictionaries.] I. McCabe, Timothy Lee. II. Title. QH309.2.R58 2004 570’.3—dc222003021279 Facts On File books are available at special discounts when purchased in bulk quantities for businesses, associations, institutions, or sales promotions. Please call our Special Sales Department in New York at (212) 967-8800 or (800) 322-8755. You can find Facts On File on the World Wide Web at http://www.factsonfile.com Text design by Joan M. Toro Cover design by Cathy Rincon Illustrations by Richard Garratt and Sholto Ainslie Printed in the United States of America VB FOF 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 This book is printed on acid-free paper.

Dedicated to Louis F. Ismay and John F. Roach Two superb teachers who taught me to always ask why and to my family Nancy, Christopher, Kevin, Jackson, Jennifer, & Jason


   We would like to thank the following for their generosity in helping to make this book as complete as possible, especially in the use of images, biographies, essays, and encouragement: Darryl Leja, NHGRI, National Institutes of Health, for wonderful illustrations; Marissa Mills, Human Genome Management Information System, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, U.S. Department of Energy Genomes to Life Program; Celia Boyer, executive director, Health On the Net (HON) Foundation; Kristina Fallenias, Nobel Foundation; Fabienne Meyers, International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry; Robert Dirig, Cornell University; Centers for Disease Control; William and Greta Wagle; John McConnell; John C. Brenner; Demetra Xythalis; Joseph Deuel, Petrified Sea Gardens, Inc.; Betty Harrison; James G. (Spider) Barbour; Hideki Horikami; Thomas Wittling; and to Nancy, Chris, Kevin, and Jack. Finally, thanks to Frank K. Darmstadt, our very patient editor, and the rest of the staff at Facts On File for their contributions. We apologize to anyone left out in error.



  Despite the often extreme specialization and intimate knowledge required to make a contribution to science, most scientific disciplines are quick to adapt new technologies and advances developed from other fields. Inevitably, a new vocabulary follows these advances, the purpose of which is to convey meaning with a word that once required a descriptive paragraph or even a page. The Encyclopedia of Biology pulls together the specialized terminology that has found its way into the language of the biologist. It addresses the often duplicitous meanings in an easily understood, succinct fashion. As each discipline has become more of a specialty, each has developed terms that serve as a shorthand for concepts within that discipline. On rare occasion, different disciplines develop the same term with radically different definitions. By indicating a discipline, the encyclopedia directs the reader to a definition relevant to the topic at hand. An example of this is the word genotype. Historically, this was a taxonomist’s term meaning “the type of the genus.” The genotype is important for classification and evolutionary studies. Subsequently, geneticists used genotype to refer to the genetic makeup of an organism. One needs to understand not only the meaning of words, but must also be able to put them in the context of the period in which they were written. There will be new terms, new (and defunct) science Websites, new leaders, new disciplines, and even breathtaking new discoveries in science, but these will not detract from the utility of this encyclopedia. Bibliophiles need only pause to consider which books they consult most frequently. The reference book holds counsel over all others. Facts On File’s Encyclopedia of Biology may not read like a novel, but it will help you read like a biologist. —Tim McCabe, Ph.D.



  Facts On File’s Encyclopedia of Biology is a reference to help in understanding the basic concepts in biology and its peripheral disciplines like ecology, botany, and even Earth science. Arranged in alphabetical order, the entries include biographies of individuals who have made major contributions as well as numerous line illustrations and photographs to help in visualizing technical concepts. I have tried to include the more common terms you will likely encounter during your educational experience or even when you are out in the “real” world. There are literally thousands of biological terms. Many are so specific to major or minor subdisciplines of biology that you may never encounter them. You will not find those esoteric terms in this encyclopedia but, rather, a collection of terms that you should be familiar with to understand core biological principles and have a working knowledge of the field. You can also use this volume simply to increase your scientific vocabulary. A series of well-placed essays elaborate on some of the most important trends and issues in the field. One of these describes how the use of computer technology has revealed an artificial toe in a mummy that is thousands of years old. You will also learn how blood is used in forensic science to capture criminals and read about the latest trends in human cytogenetics. Other essays will make you think about your role in the world and explore some of the negative effects we humans have had on the biological world, in particular to the insect family. The encyclopedia also includes appendixes with information about Internet Websites and biology-related software that is waiting for you to explore. We humans are part of this immense biological world, and we interact with it in many ways. Some of those interactions have cost species their very existence. Some have helped us survive disease. In other cases, we have helped species come back from the brink of extinction. This complex interrelationship is not clearly understood even today, and that is why many who use this book are pursuing some aspect of biology as a career. We have come a long way from Robert Hooke’s first observation of a cell under a crude microscope to today’s observations of atomic-level activity using electron microscopes. The use of computer science and technology has enabled huge leaps in our understanding of our biological xiii


Introduction world. 

  The future hope of nanotechnology, using small robots to scurry through our bodies to fix organs or cure disease, is closer to becoming reality than it is to fiction. Other former sci-fi issues, like cloning humans, are on the forefront of discussion, and some have even claimed human cloning has happened. The mapping of our entire genetic makeup brings promise to thousands of people who have or carry genetically based disease. This has led at least one scientist to declare that we are moving into the “industrial revolution of biology,” anticipating the exciting discoveries just around the corner from the analysis of all this genetic information. We are entering a world of molecular understanding of developmental biology all the way to the enigma of consciousness. But you cannot leap without first taking small steps. Use this book for the small steps, and heed the words of Cornell biologist James G. Needham (1888–1957), who once wrote: It is a monstrous abuse of the science of biology to teach it only in the laboratory—Life belongs in the fields, in the ponds, on the mountains, and by the seashore. So, armed with this book, consider that your next assignment. —Don Rittner Schenectady, New York
Encyclopedia of Biology.


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