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ماجستير: التغير الجيومورفي لوادي نهر دجلة في ناحية القيارة pdf

التغير الجيومورفي لوادي نهر دجلة في ناحية القيارة



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فرات علي حميد صكر الخفاجي


إلى مجلس كلية التربية للعلوم الإنسانية جامعة الموصل 

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الأستاذ الدكتورة

اسباهية يونس المحسن


1441 هـ - 2019م











The Geomorphic Change of Tigris
Valley in Al Qayarra District



A Thesis Submitted

By

Furat Ali Hameed Saker Al-khafaji

M.A. Thesis

In Natural Geography


Supervised

by

Prof. Dr.

Isbahiya younus Almohsen


2019 A.D. 1441 A.H






The Geomorphological Change of Tigris
Valley in Al Qayarra District


A Thesis Submitted

By

Furat Ali Hameed Saker Al-khafaji

To

The Council of Collage of Education For Humanities

University of Mosul In Partial Fulfillment of The

Requirements For The Degree of M.A. In Natural

Geography

Supervised By

Prof. Dr.

Isbahiya younus Almohsen

2019 A.D. 1441 A.H.



Abstract 

   The thesis tackles the valley of Tigris in Al-Qayarra district in an area (430, 98 km2). The length of the river in stream in the area under the current study is (53.873 km( in 2017. From the tectonic point, this area is part of the unstable path and of the lower folds particularly in Makhol Zone. Most of the rocks of the study area are sedimentary rocks and show the formations of the triple era and quaternary deposits. The climatic variety, with all its elements, has a role in stimulating the morph climatic factors and processes (weathering and erosion) with its effects on the development of the landscepe. Humans have a prominent geomorphological role that is represented in the agricultural, pastoral and constructional actions. Mining which represented in stone and sand quarries has appeared effectively since 2003 and has also a great role in changing the flow of water and deteriorating the lands of the river and this has a clear effect of this on the geomorphologic development. The tectonic shapes have a morph dynamic effect in changing the land shapes. The geomorphic factors such as morph climatic and morph dynamic processes represented in the characteristic of the land incubation have a clear effect on the nature of the river surface streaming. The area is characterized of being slope_ it is 1.022 meter per 1 km. This leads to the quick streaming of water first which is reflected in the existence of erosional traits that help to deepen the valley of the river. Consequently, this leads to increase the sedimentary loads in the valleys and gulches which are running towards the river later created sedimentary figures.

   On The basis of these features and their interaction with each other, the traits and the spatial dimensional units of the river valley have been changed and were made as a result of the riverine processes that are characterized by morph metric and geomorphologic changes. The study makes a comparison of the stream of Tigris throughout different years: 1973-1992-2017 primarily to show and analyze the geomorphologic changes. It has been concluded that the changes have happened in the space of the flooding plain during the years of the study have reached its space 102 Km2 in 1973/ 97.559 Km2 in 1992 and 106.378 Km2 in 20017. The distance (length and width) of the main stream of the river has changed. For example the length of the stream in Al_Qayarra district reached 53.062 Km2 in 1973. While its length increased in 1992 to reach 54.562 Km2 : the total of the increase is 1.45. In 2017, the length of the stream decreased to 53.873 Km2,: the total reached 0.811 in 1992 whereas it was 0.639 Km in 1973. These changes are attributed to the natural and human factors as it has been mentioned. 

  In addition, the thesis shows changes in numbers and distance of the riverine torsions and bends. It is shown that there were 6 torsions and 3 bends in 1973, 8 torsions and 4 bends in 1992, and 7 torsions and 3 bends in 2017. These have different morph metric and geomorphologic features in the length of sloping and bending rates and their widths as well. The study also shows the changes in the numbers of the crescent lakes as they reached 5 in 1973, 4 in 1992, and 3 in 2017.

  It shows the changes in the numbers, distances and features of the riverine lakes as they reached 11 lakes in 1973, 24 in 1992, and 48 in 2017. To sum up, the study shows that there are not any governmental restrictions to the owners of the quarries of stones and sands. This governmental neglect led to the misuse of the river's land. The agricultural lands have been transformed to lands of extracting sands and stones. This led to the distortion in the river's land and the movement of the river stream morphology. The study emphasizes the prominent role of the Geographic Information System (GIS) by depending on satellite visuals and using remote sensational technologies to design maps that display the space of the flooding plain. These maps also display the space and numbers of the riverine islands and the distance of the torsions and bends and classify the use of the agricultural lands during the years of the study. It also designs a sample of the riverine flooding stream. There are areas that are subjected to overflow during the times of floods. This gives a comprehensive look at the areas that face the dangers of overflowing and to the possibility of preserving safety and stability of human life and properties.












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