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تحميل رسالة ماجستير: التباين المكاني لتلوث التربة في محافظة النجف pdf

التباين المكاني لتلوث التربة في محافظة النجف 



رسالة مقدمة من الطالب

صفاء مجيد عبد الصاحب المظفر


إلى مجلس كلية الآداب - جامعة الكوفة 

وهي جزء من متطلبات درجة ماجستير آداب في الجغرافيا 



بإشراف


أ.م.د. كفاح صالح الأسدي

جامعة الكوفة - كلية الآداب

2008م


النتائج  و المصادر غير متوفرة ص ص 304 - 320













The Spatial Variation of the Soil Pollution in Najaf Governorate 

Safaa’ Majid Abdul-Sahib Al-Mudahfar

 Summary 

   The research deals with the study and analysis of the spatial variation of the soil Pollution in Najaf Governorate and it aims at revealing the elements and the recourses of the soil pollution in the governorate.

  The study came in four chapters and conclusions. The first one dealt with the theoretical aspect and the researcher’s methodology including ( the introduction, the research’s problem and its aim, hypothesis, importance, limits, justifications, the last study, the style of the research and its method and the organizing of the research ). As for the second chapter, it dis cussed the characteristics of the pollution, natural resources of the soils in the governorate which are represented by ( the climate elements, the characteristics of its soil, and its water resources, the surface and the underground ones), while the third chapter discussed the characteristics of the human pollution resources of Najaf governorate soils represented by ( industrial pollution resources, agricultural pollution resources and civil pollution resources), whereas the fourth one discussed the geographical distribution of the soils pollutants in Najaf governorate where the concentration was on the main characteristics of the pollutants that result from the human and natural resources during January and July through taking samples of the soil and testing in the laps to know the concentrations of the elements and the chemical biological compounds, then distributing it to the maps of the studied areas in the region of the study.

  For the lack of studies about this subject in Najaf governorate, I depended in this study mostly on the field work. 

1- Gathering and analyzing (80) sample of the study area soil randomly from (40) location and (2) sample each, the first during January ( the winter season) and the second during July (the summer season) where (27) elements and chemical compound were analyzed from (40) locations during January and July. By that, the number of the analyzed elements and chemicals will be (2160) elements and chemical compun, while (12) sample of biological samples have been gathered and analyzed from (6) locations of the study area and (2) samples from each location, the first was during January and the second was during July. By that, the number of biological samples which were analyzed from the study area is (144) of biological samples, by that the number of the analyzed samples andcompounds from the soil of the study area is (2304) chemical and biological elements and compounds. 

2- Gathering and analyzing (30) samples of surface water from the study area from (15) locations and I took (2) samples from each location, the first was during January and the second was during July where (16) physical and chemical elements and compounds were analyzed taken from (15) locations. By that, the number of elements and compounds is ( 480) physical and chemical elements and compounds. 
3- Gathering and analyzing (20) samples of the underground water from the study area from (10) locations, (2) from each one, the first was during January and the second was during July where (16) physical and chemical elements and compounds were analyzed from (10) locations. By that, the number of analyzed elements and compounds reaches (320) physical and chemical elements and compounds. 

4- Gathering and analyzing (12) samples from the drainages water of thestudy area from (6) locations, (2) from each one, the first was during January and the second was during July where (11) chemical elements and compounds were analyzed from (6) locations. By that, the number of the analyzed elements and compounds reached (132) chemical elements and compounds. 

5- Gathering and analyzing (4) samples from water treatment stations and from (2) locations, (2) samples from each one, the first was during January and the second was during July where (13) chemical elements and compounds from (4) locations were analyzed. By that, the number of the analyzed elements and compounds reached (104) ones. 

6- Personal visits and sightseeing done by the researcher where he visited the principals and employees of certain directorates like Najaf Environment Directorate, Najaf Agriculture Directorate, Najaf Water Resources Directorate, Najaf Drainage Directorate, Najaf Statistics Directorate, Najaf Well Drilling Dirctorate, Najaf City Hall, Najaf Health Directorate, Al-Hakeem Hospital, Al-Sadr Hospital, Al-Furat Al-Awsat Hospital, Al-Zhraa’Hospital, Al-Manadhera Hospital, Al-Ameer Private Hospital, The General Company for Cement Plant, Leather Factory, Najaf Brick Factory (2), Private Brick Factory(Al-Kuur) (5), Slaughter Factory (2), Babil Tires Factory, Plastic Products Factory, Car Washing Garages, The Industrial Area (Adan Quarter), Central Library, College of Arts, College of Agriculture’s Library, Al-Basrah University, College of Education’s Library, University of Kufa, Babylon University, and Al-Qadissiya University. 

7- For the lack of the medical test laboratory in Najaf Governorate, the Researcher resorted to the Oceanography Center in Basrah University and the chemical laboratory of Al-Qadissiya Environment Directorate, in addition to Soil and Water Tests Lab in the College of Agriculture in the University of Kufa and the Chemical Lab of Najaf Environment Directorate and the Chemical Lab of Kufa Cement Lab. 

  It is noticed through the study of the natural factors in the soil pollution and the human factors are the main part in the soil pollution in the study area through increasing the concentrations of the elements and compounds in the soil.

  It was also revealed that the human pollutants represented by the industrial, agricultural and civil wastes has a greater role in soil pollution which varies in time and place according to the nature of the pollutants and the affecting factors.

   It was also known that the most dangerous and concentrated elements and compounds in the industrial activities is (Na, Mg, P, So4, Fe, Pb, Fat, Soi2, C) and the most dangerous elements and compounds that are concentrated in the heavy waste area (K, Hco3, NH3, Cr, Cd, Zn, No3, No2, Po4), while the most concentration elements in the agriculture activity areas are ( Fe, TH, T.D.S., Ca, Al, Cu, Ni, Po4, P, Cl, So4 ).

   The Study revealed that the bacteria and the fungus have a great role in the soil pollution where its concentrations increase in soils that are irrigated by the heavy waters.

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