التباين المكاني لخصائص الأمطار في العراق للمدة (1980 - 2012م(
رسالة قدمها إلى مجلس كلية الآدَاب في جامعة الكوفة
رزاق حسين هاشم العميدي
وهي متطلبات درجة الماجستيرٍ في الجغرافية
عبد الحسن مدفون أبو رحيل
1437هـ - 2106م
Spatial Differentiation of the Rain Characteristics in Iraq
for (1980- 2012)
A Thesis Submitted to the Council of the Faculty of Arts/ University of Kufa
Razqh Hussain Hashim Al-Amidy
as a Partial Fulfillment
of the Requirements of the M.A Degree in Geography
Prof. Dr. Abdul-Hasen
2016 A.D - 1437 A.H
Rain is one of the
climatic phenomena which have deep relationship with all life aspects as it is
the main and the first source of water on this planet, a kind of falling that
represent all the images of Earth water and the most important characteristic
of the climatic system that have affected by climate after temperature.
The study aims to define
and reveal the main characteristics of rain in Iraq to recognize their spatial
and time differentiation. The study includes (12) climatic stations distributed
in Iraq to represent its Northern, Middle and Southern parts for ( 1980- 2012).
The researcher adopted
the analytic descriptive method with the mathematic and statistic styles to
define some of these characteristics and their spatial and time
The study concludes a
number of results summarized by the following:-
1- Rains quantities are
varied spatially according to the area topography where the mountains area
receives the highest rate followed by the undulating area, the middle area then
the Southern area with the lowest rate.
2- Raining period is
restricted within eight months starting in October and ending in May( Autumn,
Summer and Spring) with different quantities.
3- Rains in Iraq are
distinguished with their yearly, monthly ( and daily) waving in time and
quantity, where the highest rate was in Al-Emarah station and the lowest was in
al- Najaf station during the study period.
4- The geographic
distribution of rain in Iraq is varied according to the rain causes where most
of the heavy rains affect by the topographic relief and the light and middle
rains affected by the climate of the Mediterranean sea while the Red sea and
the Arab Gulf have effects on the light rains. Al- Sulaimaniyah station
receives the highest rate of rains density during the study period ( 2,2 mg/
while Al-Najaf and
Al-Rutba received the lowest rate ( 0,7mg/h). The relation between the rain
period and density is indirect.
5- The study shows the
general direction of the yearly rains quantity is to decrease in all the study
stations with the spatial differentiation of this decrease among the stations
:- 0,12 mg in Al-Emarah station and 6,45 mg in Erbail station.
6- Studying the real
value of rain and the water balance shows that all statios suffer from water
deficiency :- the lowest value was 295,8- mg in Al- Sulaimaniyah station and the
highest value was 1534- in Al-Najaf station.
7- Aridity characteristic had been defined for all the study station by recognizing the rain effectiveness according to Thornthoit, Dimartoon, Lanch and Blair classifications where most of the station located in the aridity and semi Aridity climate and just a few are in the semi wet climate in the Northern and East- Northern parts of Iraq.