حوض نهر قشان في إقليم كردستان العراق - دراسة هيدروجيومورفولوجية، رسالة ماجستير .pdf

 

حوض نهر قشان في إقليم كردستان العراق


دراسة هيدروجيومورفولوجية




دراسة مقدمة لاستكمال متطلبات الحصول على درجة الماجستير 

في الآداب من قسم الجغرافيا ونظم المعلومات الجغرافية 

بكلية الآداب - جامعة الإسندرية

(جغرافيا طبيعية) بنظام الساعات المعتمدة


إعداد الطالب

هه لمت توفيق سعيد



إشراف

أ.د فتحي عبد العزيز أبو راضي

أستاذ الجغرافيا الطبيعية

عميد كلية الآداب الأسبق جامعة الإسكندرية


أ.د ممدوح تهامي عقل

أستاذ الجغرافيا الطبيعية وكيل كلية الآداب -

لشئون خدمة المجتمع وتنمية البيئة جامعة الإسكندرية


1436هـ - 2015م

حوض نهر قشان في إقليم كردستان العراق -  دراسة هيدروجيومورفولوجية، رسالة ماجستير .pdf







'' Qashan River Basin in Kurdistan - Iraq
A Study in Hydro geomorphology''



Dissertation presented to complete the requirements for obtaining a M.A degree From Department of Geography and GIS


By
Halmat Tawfeeq Saeed


Supervised by


Prof. Dr 
Mamdouh Tohamy Akle 

Prof. Of Geography
Director of Faculty of Arts for
the Community Service Affairs and
Environmental Development
Faculty of Arts, Alexandria University


prof. Dr
Fathi Abdelaziz Abo Rady

 Prof .of Geography and
 Former dean of faculty of arts.
 Alexandria University


2015 - 1436




Summary

   The basin of Qashan river is located in northeast of Kurdistan–Iraq, and administratively, it is located between the provinces of Erbil and Sulaymaniyah. Astronomically, it's situated between latitudes of (36.155694) and (36.470227) in the north and longitudes of (44.457469) and (44.808477) in the eastward. Its surface area is 441.602 km2 and its length is 43.835 km.

   This study comprises of four chapters, preceded by an introduction which includes the site of the study area and illustrating it by map, rationale, objectives, hypotheses and methodology. In addition, techniques and research questions and the statement of the problem have been discussed. Moreover, the study phases, the data sources and the materials used in the study are also discussed. Finally, the structure of the study is presented.

   The first chapter highlights the geology of the study area, topography, its climate, its soil and natural plants. Firstly, the geology of the study area which includes geological formations and geological structures. The oldest geological formation dates back to the second era, and the most recent one dates back to the fourth era. The second era geological formations are Balambo-Sarmord-Kraqua, Qamjughah, Aqra-Bekhma (Its local name is Komitan Formation), Tanjaro and Shiranish and the fourth era geological formations are Alluvium fans and slope deposits. In the same vein, the existing geological structures are 8 anticline axes, 4 syncline axes and 7 faults in the study area.

   In the same line, the chapter addresses the topography of the study area which its lowest point is 488 meters and the highest point is 2294 meters above sea level, and its slope degree ranges between (0 - 69.78)° and its slope direction is towards south, west and southwest directions which is 210.16 squeaker kilometers and includes %47.58 of the total study area.

  The chapter also sheds some light on the climatic characteristics of the study area and its elements such as temperature, wind, evaporation, relative humidity rainfall. The average temperature reaches 19.19 Celsius and the total average amount of annual rainfall is 708.917 mm. According to the Lank-Demarton equation, the study area is located in the dry zone, but according to Demarton an Koppen coefficients, it is located in the humid zone.

   Moreover, the chapter studies the soil characteristics of the study area and according to Buring classification, the area of this study includes three types of soil which are Chestnut Soils-deep phase, Rough broken and stony land and Rough mountainous land. Finally, the chapter ends up with shedding some light on the natural plants and its types in the study area. In the study area, there are three types of natural plants which are plants of alpine and sub-alpine regions, oak forest and Steppes grass.

  Chapter two discusses the hydrological characteristics of the study area which consists of surface water resources and ground water. In surface water resources, discharge, water balance (water surplus and water deficit) have been explained. Furthermore, chemical and physical analysis of 7 water samples from Qashan river respectively from north to south have been taken and analyzed. In addition, in ground water, origin of its underground water, movement and aquifers of underground water of the study area have been presented. In addition to that, samples from twenty four walls have been obtained and analyzed physically and chemically and their locations and depth have been identified as well. The researcher also studied the suitability of the surface water and walls water for drinking and compared them to Iraqi and global standard water. Finally, the researcher studied water of the springs and took four samples from them such as Saruchawa, Shkarta, Betwata and Qula Kanimaran. More importantly, their locations have been identified and, chemical and physical analysis of their waters have been conducted in October and April months.

  The researcher in the third chapter studied the morphometric analysis for the basin of Qashan river which are 1) the analysis of characteristics of area and shape of Qashan river basin. The basin area is divided among 9 sub-basins and the largest is Saruchawa sub-basin which its area is 83.436 square kilometers and the smallest is Zekhan sub-basin which its area is 9.227 square kilometers.

  The researcher also studied the dimension of the basins in terms of their length and width. In addition, the characteristics of the shape of the Qashan river basin has been studied by the researcher in terms of its circularity ratio, elongation ratio, length to width ratio and form factor. 2) The analysis of characteristics of topography which are relief ratio, hypsometrical integral, ruggedness value, texture ratio, relative relief and slope degrees. 3) The characteristics of river drainage network of Qashan river basin which are stream orders, stream lengths, average of stream lengths, drainage density, stream frequency and bifurcation ratio. Finally, drainage patterns have been studied which its most patterns are in the type of dendritic drainage.

   Chapter four studied on the geomorphological phenomena of Qashan river basin which focuses on mass wastage, abrasion river phenomena, sedimentation river phenomena and geomorphological phenomena of inside of the caves. Firstly, in terms of mass wastage, the researcher studied soil creep, talus creep, earth flow, rock slide, rotational sliding, rock fall and debris slide. Secondly, in terms of abrasion river phenomena, the researcher concentrated on rills, gullies, water falls, gorge and pot holes. Thirdly, in terms of sedimentation river phenomena, the researcher explained flood plains, alluvium fan, river meanders and river island. Lastly, the geomorphological phenomena of inside of the caves are discussed. The researcher took 11 caves and studied stalactites, stalagmites, travertine pillar and cave passage ways phenomena of the caves. Finally, this research ends up with conclusion which includes the results of the study, recommendations, sources, appendix and the summary of the research in both Arabic and English languages.










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