Remote Sensing of Surface Urban Cool and Heat Island Dynamics in Erbil, Iraq, between 1992 and 2013


Remote Sensing of Surface Urban Cool

and Heat Island Dynamics in Erbil, Iraq,

between 1992 and 2013

Thesis submitted for the degree of
Doctor of Philosophy
at the University of Leicester


Azad Othman Rasul (MSc)

Department of Geography
University of Leicester


Remote Sensing of Surface Urban Cool and Heat Island Dynamics in Erbil, Iraq,  between 1992 and 2013

Remote Sensing of Surface Urban Cool and Heat Island Dynamics in Erbil, Iraq, between 1992 and 2013.

Azad Rasul


   The variation between surface and air temperature within a city and its surrounding area is a result of variations in surface cover, thermal capacity and 3-dimensional geometry. This study examines the spatiotemporal formation of the daytime Surface Urban Cool Island (SUCI) and night-time Surface Urban Heat Island (SUHI) effect in Erbil, Iraq, as a case study for cities in semi-arid climates more generally. It furthermore quantifies the influence of rapid urban expansion on the urban heat/cool island effect over a 20 year period.

  Satellite images acquired by Landsat 4, 5, 7 and 8 between 1992 and 2013 are used to retrieve Land Surface Temperature (LST). Normalised Ratio Scale (NRS) is applied to the multi-mission Landsat data, which is used to adjust the temperature range for different acquisition times of images within the same temporal range. In addition, LST data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on board Aqua and Terra from January 2003 to December 2014 are analysed. In order to establish the drivers of the observed patterns of LST and SUCI/SUHI, the relationships of LST with wetness, greenness, NDVI, soil moisture and other variables are assessed.

  The results indicate that during the daytime in summer, autumn and winter, densely built-up areas had lower LST acting as cool islands (SUCI) compared to the non-urbanised area around the city. In contrast, at night-time, Erbil experienced higher LST and demonstrated a significant SUHI effect. The mean LST of the newly urbanised and vegetated areas between 1992 and 2013 decreased by 2.28°C and 7.29°C respectively. Soil moisture (wetness) is the main marker of the SUCI/SUHI effect, whilst urban expansion may cause a decrease of daytime LST in dry climate zones. The NRS method is appropriate for detecting temperature trends greater than 2°C in Landsat data.


Abdollahi, J., Cheraghi, S. and Rahimian, M. (2008) 'Comparing the environmental effects of land use changes on vegetation cover and emitted land surface temperature in urban and non-urban areas using remote sensing', 34, pp. 85-96.
Abdullah, H. (2012) The Use of Landsat 5 TM Imagery to Detect Urban Expansion and Its Impact on Land Surface Temperatures in The City of Erbil, Iraqi Kurdistan. MSc. University of Leicester.
Abdulrahman, I. (2014) Energy efficient buildings in a hot and dry climate. Master. Mälardalens University. Available at:
Akther, M.S. and Hassan, Q.K., 2011. Remote sensing based estimates of surface wetness conditions and growing degree days over northern Alberta, Canada. Boreal environment research, 16(5).
Al-Ali, A.M.H. (2015) The Effect of Land Cover on the Air and Surface Urban Heat Island of a Desert Oasis. PhD. Durham University. Available at:
Alberti, M. and Marzluff, J.M. (2004) 'Ecological resilience in urban ecosystems: linking urban patterns to human and ecological functions', Urban ecosystems, 7(3), pp. 241-265.
Albrecht, F. (1952) 'Mikrometeorologische Temperaturmessungen vom Flugzeug aus', Ber.Deutsch.Wetterdienst, Bad Kissingen, 38, pp. 332.
Al-Hashimi, F.W. and Bandyopadhyay, S. (2015) 'The Persistent Element in the Old Urban Fabric, Erbil Bazar Area', Journal of Strategic Innovation and Sustainability Vol, 10(2), pp. 48-57.
Amiri, R., Weng, Q., Alimohammadi, A. and Alavipanah, S.K. (2009) 'Spatial–temporal dynamics of land surface temperature in relation to fractional vegetation cover and land use/cover in the Tabriz urban area, Iran', Remote Sensing of Environment, 113(12), pp. 2606-2617.
Arnfield, A.J., 1982. An approach to the estimation of the surface radiative properties and radiation budgets of cities. Physical Geography, 3(2), pp.97-122.
Aufmuth, J.L. (2001) A comparison of the normalized difference and the tasseled cap vegetation indices: a case study of using satellite remote sensing imagery for assessment of environmental impact of a hydroelectric power project on the River
Danube. Master. University of Florida. Available at:
Baboo, S.S. and Devi, M.R., 2010. An analysis of different resampling methods in Coimbatore, District. Global Journal of Computer Science and Technology, 10(15).
Baig, M.H.A., Zhang, L., Shuai, T. and Tong, Q. (2014) 'Derivation of a tasselled cap transformation based on Landsat 8 at-satellite reflectance', Remote Sensing Letters, 5(5), pp. 423-431.
Bajaj, D.N., Inamdar, A.B. & Vaibhav, V. (2012) 'Temporal variation of Urban Heat Island using Landsat data: A case study of Ahmedabad, India', 33rd Asian Conference on Remote Sensing 2012, ACRS 2012 Pattaya, Thailand, 26-30 November, pp. 797-804.
Baker, L.A., Brazel, A.T. and Westerhoff, P. (2004) 'Environmental consequences of rapid urbanization in warm, arid lands: Case study of Phoenix, Arizona (USA)', Sustainable cities, 18, pp. 155-164.
Baker, L.A., Brazel, A.J., Selover, N., Martin, C., McIntyre, N., Steiner, F.R., Nelson, A. and Musacchio, L. (2002) 'Urbanization and warming of Phoenix (Arizona, USA): Impacts, feedbacks and mitigation', Urban ecosystems, 6(3), pp. 183-203.
Baper, S., Y., Hassan, A.S. & Ismail, S.T. (2010) 'Modernization Theory and House Garden Transformation: A case Study in Erbil City', Proceeding Papers of 2nd International Seminar on Tropical Eco-Settlements, in Denpasar, Bali, Indonesia 3-5 November 2010.
Barducci, A. and Pippi, I. (1996) 'Temperature and emissivity retrieval from remotely sensed images using the “grey body emissivity” method', IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, 34(3), pp. 681-695.
Barring, L., Mattsson, J. and Lindqvist, S. (1985) 'Canyon geometry, street temperatures and urban heat island in Malmö, Sweden', Journal of Climatology, 5(4), pp. 433-444.
Barsi, J.A., Schott, J.R., Hook, S.J., Raqueno, N.G., Markham, B.L. and Radocinski, R.G., 2014. Landsat-8 thermal infrared sensor (TIRS) vicarious radiometric calibration. Remote Sensing, 6(11), pp.11607-11626.
Barsi, J., Barker, J.L. & Schott, J.R. (2003) 'An atmospheric correction parameter calculator for a single thermal band earth-sensing instrument', Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, 2003 (IGARSS). Toulouse, France, 21-25 July.
Becker, F. and Li, Z.-. (1990) 'Temperature-independent spectral indices in thermal infrared bands', Remote Sensing of Environment, 32(1), pp. 17-33.
Binyan, Y., Wenjie, F., Xin, T. & Xiru, X. (2008) 'Study on Urban Heat Island of Beijing using ASTER Data - A Quantative Remote Sensing Perspective', International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium (IGARSS) Boston, MA, United States, 6-11 July.
Bonan, G.B. (2002) Ecological climatology: concepts and applications. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Borel, C.C. (1997) 'Iterative retrieval of surface emissivity and temperature for a hyperspectral sensor', First JPL Workshop on Remote Sensing of Land Surface Emissivity Pasadena, CA, United States, 6-8 May United States: Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States).
Borgatti, S., 2016, Normalizing Variables. [ONLINE] Available at: [Accessed 27 August 2016].
Bornstein, R.D. (1968) 'Observations of the urban heat island effect in New York City', Journal of Applied Meteorology, 7(4), pp. 575-582.
Bowler, D.E., Buyung-Ali, L., Knight, T.M. and Pullin, A.S. (2010) 'Urban greening to cool towns and cities: A systematic review of the empirical evidence', Landscape and Urban Planning, 97(3), pp. 147-155.
Brazel, S.W. and Balling Jr, R.C. (1986) 'Temporal analysis of long-term atmospheric moisture levels in Phoenix, Arizona', Journal of climate and applied meteorology, 25(2), pp. 112-117.
Buringh, P. (1960) Soils and soil conditions in Iraq. Baghdad, Iraq: Ministry of agriculture.
Buyantuyev, A. and Wu, J. (2010) 'Urban heat islands and landscape heterogeneity: linking spatiotemporal variations in surface temperatures to land-cover and socioeconomic patterns', Landscape Ecology, 25(1), pp. 17-33.
Ca, V.T., Asaeda, T. and Abu, E.M. (1998) 'Reductions in air conditioning energy caused by a nearby park', Energy and Buildings, 29(1), pp. 83-92.
Carlson, T.N. and Arthur, S.T. (2000) 'The impact of land use-land cover changes due to urbanization on surface microclimate and hydrology: a satellite perspective', Global and Planetary Change, 25(1-2), pp. 49-65.
Carlson, T.N., Dodd, J.K., Benjamin, S.G. and Cooper, J.N. (1981) 'Satellite estimation of the surface energy balance, moisture availability and thermal inertia', Journal of Applied Meteorology, 20(1), pp. 67-87.
Celestian, S.B. and Martin, C.A. (2004) 'Rhizosphere, surface, and air temperature patterns at parking lots in Phoenix, Arizona, US', Journal of Arboriculture, 30(4), pp. 245-252.
Cenedese, A. and Monti, P. (2003) 'Interaction between an inland urban heat island and a sea-breeze flow: A laboratory study', Journal of Applied Meteorology, 42(11), pp. 1569-1583.
Chander, G., and B. Markham, 2003, Revised Landsat-5 TM radiometric calibration procedures and postcalibration dynamic ranges. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, 41, pp. 2674-2677.
Chang, C., Li, M. and Chang, S. (2007) 'A preliminary study on the local cool-island intensity of Taipei city parks', Landscape and Urban Planning, 80(4), pp. 386-395.
Chapman, L., Azevedo, J.A. and Prieto-Lopez, T. (2013) 'Urban heat & critical infrastructure networks: A viewpoint', Urban Climate, 3, pp. 7-12.
Chen, X., Zhao, H., Li, P. and Yin, Z. (2006) 'Remote sensing image-based analysis of the relationship between urban heat island and land use/cover changes', Remote Sensing of Environment, 104(2), pp. 133-146.
Cheval, S., Dumitrescu, A. and Bell, A. (2009) 'The urban heat island of Bucharest during the extreme high temperatures of July 2007', Theoretical and Applied Climatology, 97(3-4), pp. 391-401.
Cheval, S. and Dumitrescu, A., 2009. The July urban heat island of Bucharest as derived from modis images. Theoretical and applied climatology, 96(1-2), pp.145-153.
Chow, W.T., Brennan, D. and Brazel, A.J. (2012) 'Urban heat island research in Phoenix, Arizona: Theoretical contributions and policy applications', Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 93(4), pp. 517-530.
Chow, W.T. and Roth, M. (2006) 'Temporal dynamics of the urban heat island of Singapore', International Journal of Climatology, 26(15), pp. 2243-2260.
Chuvieco, E. and Huete, A. (2010) Fundamentals of satellite remote sensing. CRC Press Inc. Boca Raton, FL 33487, USA.
Clark, R.N., Swayze, G.A., Heidebrecht, K., Green, R.O. & Goetz, F.H. (1995) 'Calibration to surface reflectance of terrestrial imaging spectrometry data: Comparison of methods', Summaries of the Fifth Annual JPL Airborne Earth Science Workshop. Pasadena, CA, United States, 23 January United States: United States, pp. 41-42.
Clinton, N. and Gong, P. (2013) 'MODIS detected surface urban heat islands and sinks: Global locations and controls', Remote Sensing of Environment, 134, pp. 294-304.
Coll, C., Galve, J.M., Sanchez, J.M. and Caselles, V. (2010) 'Validation of Landsat-7/ETM thermal-band calibration and atmospheric correction with ground-based measurements', IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, 48(1), pp. 547-555.
Coll, C., Caselles, V., Rubio, E., Sospedra, F. and Valor, E. (2001) 'Temperature and emissivity separation from calibrated data of the Digital Airborne Imaging Spectrometer', Remote Sensing of Environment, 76(2), pp. 250-259.
Combs, A.C. (1961) Techniques and Results of Infrared Surface-temperature Measurements in New Jersey and Greenland. US Army Signal Research and Development Laboratory.
Cook, M., Schott, J.R., Mandel, J. and Raqueno, N., 2014. Development of an operational calibration methodology for the Landsat thermal data archive and initial testing of the atmospheric compensation component of a Land Surface Temperature (LST) product from the archive. Remote Sensing, 6(11), pp.11244-11266.
Copernicus (2016) Land Surface Temperature | Copernicus Global Land Service. Available at:
Crist, E.P. and Cicone, R.C. (1984) 'A physically-based transformation of Thematic Mapper data---The TM Tasseled Cap', IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, GE-22(3), pp. 256-263.
Crum, S. (2016) The Geographer’s Craft Project, Department of Geography, The University of Colorado at Boulder. Available at:
Cui, Y.Y. and De Foy, B. (2012) 'Seasonal variations of the urban heat island at the surface and the near-surface and reductions due to urban vegetation in Mexico City', Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology, 51(5), pp. 855-868.
DESA, U. 2014 United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division (2014). World Urbanization Prospects: The 2014 Revision, CD-ROM Edition., UN DESA, New York, USA.
Dhorde, A. and Dhorde, A. (2012) Surface Urban Heat Island. Saarbrücken, Germany: LAP Lambert Academic Publishing.
DiStasio Jr., R.J. & Resmini, R.G. (2010) 'Atmospheric compensation of thermal infrared hyperspectral imagery with the emissive empirical line method and the in-scene atmospheric compensation algorithms: a comparison', SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering. Orlando, FL, United States, 5-8 April.
Dizayee, R.H. (2014) Groundwater Degradation and Sustainability of the Erbil Basin, Erbil, Kurdistan Region, Iraq. Master. Texas Christian University. Available at:
Du, C., Ren, H., Qin, Q., Meng, J. and Zhao, S. (2015) 'A practical split-window algorithm for estimating land surface temperature from Landsat 8 data', Remote Sensing, 7(1), pp. 647-665.
Elachi, C. and Van Zyl, J. (2006) Introduction to the physics and techniques of remote sensing. Second edn. Hoboken, NJ, USA: John Wiley & Sons.
EPA (2009) 'Reducing Urban Heat Islands: Compendium of Strategies Urban Heat Island Basics', in Anonymous .
Erbiltourism2014 (2014) Erbil seeking access to international standards of green areas. Available at:
Etzion, Y. (1990) 'The Thermal Behaviour of Non-Shaded Closed Courtyards in Hot-Arid Zones [1]', Architectural Science Review, 33(3), pp. 79-83.
Fadhil, A.M. (2011) 'Drought mapping using Geoinformation technology for some sites in the Iraqi Kurdistan region', International Journal of Digital Earth, 4(3), pp. 239-257.
Farina, A. (2012) Exploring the relationship between land surface temperature and vegetation abundance for urban heat island mitigation in Seville, Spain. Master. Lund University. Available at:
Flanagan, M. & Civco, D.L. (2001) 'Subpixel impervious surface mapping', Proceedings of American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing Annual Convention St. Louis, MO, USA, 23-27 April.
Florio, E., Lele, S., Chi Chang, Y., Sterner, R. and Glass, G. (2004) 'Integrating AVHRR satellite data and NOAA ground observations to predict surface air temperature: a statistical approach', International Journal of Remote Sensing, 25(15), pp. 2979-2994.
Frey, C.M., Rigo, G., Parlow, E. & Marçal, A. (2005) 'The cooling effect of cities in a hot and dry environment', Global developments in environmental earth observation from space Porto, Portugal, 6-11 June.
Frey, C.M., Rigo, G. and Parlow, E. (2012) 'Investigation of the daily Urban Cooling Island (UCI) in two coastal cities in an arid environment: Dubai and Abu Dhabi (UAE)', City, 81.
Gago, E., Roldan, J., Pacheco-Torres, R. and Ordóñez, J. (2013) 'The city and urban heat islands: A review of strategies to mitigate adverse effects', Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 25, pp. 749-758.
Gallo, K.P. and Owen, T.W. (1998) 'Assessment of urban heat Islands: A multi-sensor perspective for the Dallas-Ft. worth, USA region', Geocarto International, 13(4), pp. 35-41.
Gallo, K., McNab, A., Karl, T., Brown, J., Hood, J. and Tarpley, J. (1993) 'The use of NOAA AVHRR data for assessment of the urban heat island effect', Journal of Applied Meteorology, 32(5), pp. 899-908.
Gao, B., Davis, C.O. & Goetz, A.F.H. (2006) 'A review of atmospheric correction techniques for hyperspectral remote sensing of land surfaces and ocean color', International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium (IGARSS) Denver, CO; United States, 31 July - 4 August.
Gao, B., Heidebrecht, K.B. and Goetz, A.F. (1993) 'Derivation of scaled surface reflectances from AVIRIS data', Remote Sensing of Environment, 44(2), pp. 165-178.
Ghazal, N.K. and Hassoon, K.I. (2012) 'Temperature calculation using thermal bands of (ETM) sensor', Iraqi Journal of Science, 53(2), pp. 435-443.
Ghent, D., Kaduk, J., Remedios, J., Ardö, J. and Balzter, H. (2010) 'Assimilation of land surface temperature into the land surface model JULES with an ensemble Kalman filter', Journal of Geophysical Research Atmospheres, 115(19), pp. D19112-1-D19112-16.
Gillespie, A.R. (1985) 'Lithologic mapping of silicate rocks using TIMS', Proceedings TIMS Data User's Workshop Pasadena, CA, USAJet Propulsion Laboratory.
Gillespie, A.R., Rokugawa, S., Hook, S.J., Matsunaga, T. and Kahle, A.B. (eds.) (1999) Temperature/emissivity separation algorithm theoretical basis document, version 2.4. Greenbelt, MD, USA: NASA/GSFC.
Golden, J.S., Brazel, A., Salmond, J. and Laws, D. (2006) 'Energy and water sustainability: The role of urban climate change from metropolitan infrastructure', Journal of Engineering for Sustainable Community Development, 1(1), pp. 55-70.
Grossman-Clarke, S., Zehnder, J.A., Loridan, T. and Grimmond, C.S.B. (2010) 'Contribution of land use changes to near-surface air temperatures during recent summer extreme heat events in the Phoenix metropolitan area', Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology, 49(8), pp. 1649-1664.
Guoyin, C. & Mingyi, D. (2009) 'Relationship between thermal inertia and urban heat sink in Beijing derived from Satellite images', 2009 Joint Urban Remote Sensing Event Shanghai, China, 20-22 May.
Gutman, G. (1999) 'On the monitoring of land surface temperatures with the NOAA/AVHRR: removing the effect of satellite orbit drift', International Journal of Remote Sensing, 20(17), pp. 3407-3413.
Habib, B. (2007) 'The Urban Heat Island of Dammam city, The Study by Using Remote Sensing and GIS', The second forum of GIS, Al Khobar, Saudi Arabia, 23-25 April.
Hafner, J. and Kidder, S.Q. (1999) 'Urban heat island modeling in conjunction with satellite-derived surface/soil parameters', Journal of Applied Meteorology, 38(4), pp. 448-465.
Hama, R., H., Hamad, R., T. & Aziz, F., H. (2014) 'Climate change in relation to rainfall and temperature in Erbil province, Kurdistan, Iraq', 8th Geo Tunis Conference Hammamet, Tunisia, 2-6 April.
Hameed, H. (2013) Water harvesting in Erbil Governorate, Kurdistan region, Iraq: detection of suitable sites using geographic information system and remote sensing. Master. Lund University. Available at:
Hansen, P.C. (1998) Rank-deficient and discrete ill-posed problems: numerical aspects of linear inversion. SIAM, Philadelphia, PA 19104-2688 USA.
Hao, X. and Li, W. (2016) 'Oasis cold island effect and its influence on air temperature: a case study of Tarim Basin, Northwest China', Journal of Arid Land, 8(2), pp. 172-183.
Harlan, S.L., Brazel, A.J., Prashad, L., Stefanov, W.L. and Larsen, L. (2006) 'Neighborhood microclimates and vulnerability to heat stress', Social science & medicine, 63(11), pp. 2847-2863.
Hasan, T. (2006) Geographical Analysis of the Characteristics of the Temperature in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq. Master. University of Salahaddin.
Hawkins, T.W., Brazel, A.J., Stefanov, W.L., Bigler, W. and Saffell, E.M., 2004. The role of rural variability in urban heat island determination for Phoenix, Arizona. Journal of Applied Meteorology, 43(3), pp.476-486.
Hawlergov (2012) Images of Erbil Citadel. Available at: (Accessed: 24 March 2016).
Hoffmann, P., Krueger, O. and Schlünzen, K.H. (2012) 'A statistical model for the urban heat island and its application to a climate change scenario', International Journal of Climatology, 32(8), pp. 1238-1248.
Howard, L. (1833) The climate of London: deduced from meteorological observations made in the metropolis and at various places around it. Harvey and Darton, J. and A. Arch, Longman, Hatchard, S. Highley [and] R. Hunter.
Hsu, S. (1984) 'Variation of an urban heat island in Phoenix', The Professional Geographer, 36(2), pp. 196-200.
Ibrahim, R.I., Mushatat, S.A. and Abdelmonem, M.G. (2015) 'Erbil', Cities, 49, pp. 14-25.
Ibrahim, R., Mushatat, S. and Abdelmonem, M.G. (2014) 'Authenticity, indentity and sustainability in post-war Iraq: Reshaping the Urban Form of Erbil City', Journal of Islamic Architecture, 3(2), pp. 58-68.
Imhoff, M.L., Zhang, P., Wolfe, R.E. and Bounoua, L., 2010. Remote sensing of the urban heat island effect across biomes in the continental USA. Remote Sensing of Environment, 114(3), pp.504-513.
IOM Iraq (2015) ‘Erbil Governorate Profile’. Available online: (Accessed on 26 August 2016).
Jaggi, S., Quattrochi, D. & Baskin, R. (1992) 'An algorithm for the estimation of bounds on the emissivity and temperatures from thermal multispectral airborne remotely sensed data', Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering Orlando, FL, USA, 22-24 April Bellingham, WA, United States.
Jang, K., Kang, S., Lim, Y., Jeong, S., Kim, J., Kimball, J.S. and Hong, S.Y. (2013) 'Monitoring daily evapotranspiration in Northeast Asia using MODIS and a regional Land Data Assimilation System', Journal of Geophysical Research Atmospheres, 118(23), pp. 12927-12940.
Jassim, H.M., Kurdi, Y.A.A. and Al-nidai, F.H.I. (2013) 'Environmental Issues in Erbil City', International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology, 4(8), pp. 3509-3515.
Jauregui, E. (1997) 'Heat island development in Mexico City', Atmospheric Environment, 31(22), pp. 3821-3831.
Jenerette, G.D., Harlan, S.L., Brazel, A., Jones, N., Larsen, L. and Stefanov, W.L. (2007) 'Regional relationships between surface temperature, vegetation, and human settlement in a rapidly urbanizing ecosystem', Landscape Ecology, 22(3), pp. 353-365.
Ji, M. and Jensen, J.R. (1999) 'Effectiveness of subpixel analysis in detecting and quantifying urban imperviousness from Landsat Thematic Mapper imagery', Geocarto International, 14(4), pp. 33-41.
Jiang, J. and Tian, G. (2010) 'Analysis of the impact of land use/land cover change on land surface temperature with remote sensing', Procedia environmental sciences, 2, pp. 571-575.
Jiménez-Muñoz, J.C. and Sobrino, J.A. (2003) 'A generalized single-channel method for retrieving land surface temperature from remote sensing data', Journal of Geophysical Research, 108(22).
Jin, S. and Sader, S.A. (2005) 'Comparison of time series tasseled cap wetness and the normalized difference moisture index in detecting forest disturbances', Remote Sensing of Environment, 94(3), pp. 364-372.
Johnson, G., Oke, T., Lyons, T., Steyn, D., Watson, I. and Voogt, J.A. (1991) 'Simulation of surface urban heat islands under ‘ideal’ conditions at night Part 1: theory and tests against field data', Boundary-Layer Meteorology, 56(3), pp. 275-294.
Kahle, A.B., Madura, D.P. and Soha, J.M. (1980) 'Middle infrared multispectral aircraft scanner data: analysis for geological applications', Applied Optics, 19(14), pp. 2279-2290.
Kahraman, L.M. (2004) Geographical analysis of the characteristics of soils and the problems of the province of Arbil and scalability land productivity. PhD. Salahaddin University, Erbil, Iraq.
Kalnay, E. and Cai, M. (2003) 'Impact of urbanization and land-use change on climate', Nature, 423(6939), pp. 528-531.
Kalota, D., 2016. Exploring Relation of Land Surface Temperature with Selected Variables Using Geographically Weighted Regression and Ordinary Least Square Methods in Manipur State, India. Geocarto International, pp.1-15.
Karim, K., H., Fattah, A., I. and Qader, F., M. (2015) 'First record of bedded limestone inside Upper Bakhtiari Formation, Sulaimani Governorate, Kurdistan Region, NE-Iraq', Journal of Applied Geology and Geophysics, 3(5), pp. 1-8.
Karnieli, A., Agam, N., Pinker, R.T., Anderson, M., Imhoff, M.L., Gutman, G.G., Panov, N. and Goldberg, A. (2010) 'Use of NDVI and land surface temperature for drought assessment: merits and limitations', Journal of Climate, 23(3), pp. 618-633.
Kaufmann, R., Zhou, L., Myneni, R., Tucker, C., Slayback, D., Shabanov, N. and Pinzon, J. (2003) 'The effect of vegetation on surface temperature: A statistical analysis of NDVI and climate data', Geophysical Research Letters, 30(22).
Keramitsoglou, I., Kiranoudis, C.T., Ceriola, G., Weng, Q. and Rajasekar, U. (2011) 'Identification and analysis of urban surface temperature patterns in Greater Athens, Greece, using MODIS imagery', Remote Sensing of Environment, 115(12), pp. 3080-3090.
Khalid, N. (2014) Urban heat island in Erbil City. Master. Lund University. Available at:
Khandelwal, S., Goyal, R., Kaul, N. & Singhal, V. (2011) 'Study of Land Surface Temperature Variations with Distance from Hot Spots for Urban Heat Island Analysis', Geospatial World Forum, Theme Dimensions and Directions of Geospatial Industry. Hyderabad, India, 18-21 January.
Kidder, S.Q. and Essenwanger, O.M. (1995) 'The effect of clouds and wind on the difference in nocturnal cooling rates between urban and rural areas', Journal of Applied Meteorology, 34(11), pp. 2440-2448.
Kim, Y. and Baik, J. (2005) 'Spatial and temporal structure of the urban heat island in Seoul', Journal of Applied Meteorology, 44(5), pp. 591-605.
Kruse, F.A. (1988) 'Use of airborne imaging spectrometer data to map minerals associated with hydrothermally altered rocks in the northern Grapevine Mountains, Nevada, and California', Remote Sensing of Environment, 24(1), pp. 31-51.
Landsat, N.A.S.A., 7, Science Data Users Handbook. 2011-03-11.
Landsberg, H.E. (1979) 'Atmospheric changes in a growing community', Urban Ecology, 4(1), pp. 53-81.
Landsberg, H.E. (1981) The urban climate. Academic press, New York, USA.
Lauer, D.T., Morain, S.A. and Salomonson, V.V. (1997) 'The Landsat program: Its origins, evolution, and impacts', Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing, 63(7), pp. 831-838.
Lazzarini, M., Marpu, P.R. and Ghedira, H. (2013) 'Temperature-land cover interactions: the inversion of urban heat island phenomenon in desert city areas', Remote Sensing of Environment, 130, pp. 136-152.
Lee, H. (1993) 'An application of NOAA AVHRR thermal data to the study of urban heat islands', Atmospheric Environment. Part B, Urban Atmosphere, 27(1), pp. 1-13.
Lee, J.S., Kim, J.T. and Lee, M.G. (2014) 'Mitigation of urban heat island effect and greenroofs', Indoor and Built Environment, 23(1), pp. 62-69.
Lee, S. and French, S.P. (2009) 'Regional impervious surface estimation: an urban heat island application', Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, 52(4), pp. 477-496.
Lemonsu, A. and Masson, V. (2002) 'Simulation of a summer urban breeze over Paris', Boundary-Layer Meteorology, 104(3), pp. 463-490.
Lenschow, D.H. and Dutton, J.A. (1964) 'Surface temperature variations measured from an airplane over several surface types', Journal of Applied Meteorology, 3(1), pp. 65-69.
Li, J. and Li, J. (2008) 'Derivation of global hyperspectral resolution surface emissivity spectra from advanced infrared sounder radiance measurements', Geophysical Research Letters, 35(15).
Li, S., Mo, H. and Dai, Y. (2011) 'Spatio-temporal Pattern of Urban Cool Island Intensity and Its Eco-environmental Response in Chang-Zhu-Tan Urban Agglomeration', Communications in Information Science and Management Engineering, 1(9), pp. 1-6.
Li, Y., Zhang, H. and Kainz, W. (2012) 'Monitoring patterns of urban heat islands of the fast-growing Shanghai metropolis, China: Using time-series of Landsat TM/ETM data', International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation, 19, pp. 127-138.
Li, Z., Becker, F., Stoll, M. and Wan, Z. (1999) 'Evaluation of six methods for extracting relative emissivity spectra from thermal infrared images', Remote Sensing of Environment, 69(3), pp. 197-214.
Li, Z. and Becker, F. (1993) 'Feasibility of land surface temperature and emissivity determination from AVHRR data', Remote Sensing of Environment, 43(1), pp. 67-85.
Li, Z., Wu, H., Wang, N., Qiu, S., Sobrino, J.A., Wan, Z., Tang, B. and Yan, G. (2013) 'Land surface emissivity retrieval from satellite data', International Journal of Remote Sensing, 34(9-10), pp. 3084-3127.
Liang, S. & Shi, P. (2009) 'Analysis of the relationship between urban heat island and vegetation cover through Landsat ETM: A case study of Shenyang', 2009 Joint Urban Remote Sensing Event Shanghai; China, 20-22 May.
Liang, S., Li, X. and Wang, J. (2012) Advanced remote sensing. 1st edn. Amsterdam; Boston: Academic Press.
Liu, L. and Zhang, Y. (2011) 'Urban heat island analysis using the Landsat TM data and ASTER data: A case study in Hong Kong', Remote Sensing, 3(7), pp. 1535-1552.
Lopezgarcia, M.J., Caselles, V., Melia, J. and Perezcueva, A.J. (1991) 'NOAA-AVHRR contribution to the analysis of urban heat islands', in Guyot G. (ed.) Physical Measurements and Signatures in Remote Sensing. Harwood Academic, pp. 501-504.
Lorenz, D. (1962) Messungen der Bodenoberflächentemperatur vom Hubschrauber aus:(mit 9 Tabellen im Text). Selbstverl. des Deutschen Wetterdienstes.
Ma, X.L., Wan, Z., Moeller, C.C., Menzel, W.P. and Gumley, L.E. (2002) 'Simultaneous retrieval of atmospheric profiles, land-surface temperature, and surface emissivity from Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer thermal infrared data: extension of a two-step physical algorithm', Applied Optics, 41(5), pp. 909-924.
Ma, X.L., Wan, Z., Moeller, C.C., Menzel, W.P., Gumley, L.E. and Zhang, Y. (2000) 'Retrieval of geophysical parameters from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer thermal infrared data: evaluation of a two-step physical algorithm', Applied Optics, 39(20), pp. 3537-3550.
Magee, N., Curtis, J. and Wendler, G. (1999) 'The urban heat island effect at Fairbanks, Alaska', Theoretical and Applied Climatology, 64(1-2), pp. 39-47.
Majumdar, T., Pal, S. and Bhattacharya, A.K. (2012) 'Generation of emissivity and land surface temperature maps using MODIS TIR data for lithological mapping over the Singhbhum-Orissa Craton', Journal of the Geological Society of India, 80(5), pp. 685-699.
Malinowski, J.C. (2002) Iraq: A Geography. ERIC.
Mallick, Y.K.B. and Kerle, C.A. (2009) 'Satellite-based analysis of the role of land use/land cover and vegetation density on surface temperature regime of Delhi, india', Journal of the Indian Society of Remote Sensing, 37(2), pp. 20l-2l4.
Matson, M., Mcclain, E.P., McGinnis Jr, D.F. and Pritchard, J.A. (1978) 'Satellite detection of urban heat islands', Monthly Weather Review, 106(12), pp. 1725-1734.
McMillin, L.M. (1975) 'Estimation of sea surface temperatures from two infrared window measurements with different absorption', Journal of Geophysical Research, 80(36), pp. 5113-5117.
Media.tagorg (2013) Available at: (Accessed: 24 March 2016).
Memon, R.A., Leung, D.Y. and Liu, C. (2009) 'An investigation of urban heat island intensity (UHII) as an indicator of urban heating', Atmospheric Research, 94(3), pp. 491-500.
Menberg, K., Bayer, P., Zosseder, K., Rumohr, S. and Blum, P. (2013) 'Subsurface urban heat islands in German cities', Science of the total environment, 442, pp. 123-133.
Miao, S., Chen, F., LeMone, M.A., Tewari, M., Li, Q. and Wang, Y. (2009) 'An observational and modeling study of characteristics of urban heat island and boundary layer structures in Beijing', Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology, 48(3), pp. 484-501.
Mo, X., Cheng, C., Zhai, F. & Li, H. (2011) 'Study on temporal and spatial variation of the urban heat island based on Landsat TM/ETM+ in central city and Binhai New Area of Tianjin', 2011 International Conference on Multimedia Technology Hangzhou; China., 26-28 July.
Mochida, A., Murakami, S., Ojima, T., Kim, S., Ooka, R. and Sugiyama, H. (1997) 'CFD analysis of mesoscale climate in the Greater Tokyo area', Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, 67, pp. 459-477.
Montanaro, M., Lunsford, A., Tesfaye, Z., Wenny, B. and Reuter, D., 2014. Radiometric calibration methodology of the Landsat 8 thermal infrared sensor. Remote Sensing, 6(9), pp.8803-8821.
Montávez, J.P., Rodríguez, A. and Jiménez, J.I. (2000) 'A study of the urban heat island of Granada', International Journal of Climatology, 20(8), pp. 899-911.
Morris, C. and Simmonds, I. (2000) 'Associations between varying magnitudes of the urban heat island and the synoptic climatology in Melbourne, Australia', International Journal of Climatology, 20(15), pp. 1931-1954.
MSDEG Meteorological and Seismological Department of Erbil Governorate (2014) Elements Climatic Data of Erbil City. Unpublished.
Mu, Q., Zhao, M. and Running, S.W. (2011) 'Improvements to a MODIS global terrestrial evapotranspiration algorithm', Remote Sensing of Environment, 115(8), pp. 1781-1800.
Mu, Q., Zhao, M. and Running, S.W., 2011. Brief introduction to MODIS evapotranspiration data set (MOD16).
Mukherjee, S., Joshi, P.K. and Garg, R.D., 2015. Regression-Kriging technique to downscale satellite-derived land surface temperature in heterogeneous agricultural landscape. IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing, 8(3), pp.1245-1250.
NASA (2016a) Land Surface Temperature: Global Maps. Available at:
NASA (2016b) Near Surface Air Temperature — GES DISC - Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center. Available at:
Nasrallah, H.A., Brazel, A.J. and Balling, R.C. (1990) 'Analysis of the Kuwait City urban heat island', International Journal of Climatology, 10(4), pp. 401-405.
NGC (2015) Available at: (Accessed: 24 March 2016).
Nichol, J.E., Fung, W.Y., Lam, K. and Wong, M.S. (2009) 'Urban heat island diagnosis using ASTER satellite images and ‘in situ’ air temperature', Atmospheric Research, 94(2), pp. 276-284.
Nichol, J. and Wong, M.S. (2005) 'Modeling urban environmental quality in a tropical city', Landscape and Urban Planning, 73(1), pp. 49-58.
Niclòs, R., Caselles, V., Coll, C. and Valor, E., 2007. Determination of sea surface temperature at large observation angles using an angular and emissivity-dependent split-window equation. Remote Sensing of Environment, 111(1), pp.107-121.
Oke, T.R. (1987) Boundary layer climates. 2nd edn. London: Routledge.
Oke, T.R. (1982) 'The energetic basis of the urban heat island', Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, 108(455), pp. 1-24.
Oke, T.R. (1973) 'City size and the urban heat island', Atmospheric Environment (1967), 7(8), pp. 769-779.
Oke, T.R., Crowther, J., McNaughton, K., Monteith, J. and Gardiner, B. (1989) 'The micrometeorology of the urban forest [and discussion]', Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 324(1223), pp. 335-349.
Oke, T.R., Spronken-Smith, R., Jauregui, E. and Grimmond, C. (1999) 'The energy balance of central Mexico City during the dry season', Atmospheric Environment, 33(24), pp. 3919-3930.
Oke, T.R. (1976) 'The distinction between canopy and boundary-layer urban heat islands', Atmosphere, 14(4), pp. 268-277.
Oke, T., Johnson, G., Steyn, D. and Watson, I. (1991) 'Simulation of surface urban heat islands under ‘ideal’conditions at night part 2: diagnosis of causation', Boundary-Layer Meteorology, 56(4), pp. 339-358.
One-thirteen (2009) In and around Erbil City. Available at: (Accessed: 24 March 2016).
Onishi, A., Cao, X., Ito, T., Shi, F. and Imura, H. (2010) 'Evaluating the potential for urban heat-island mitigation by greening parking lots', Urban forestry & Urban greening, 9(4), pp. 323-332.
ORNL DAAC (2015) Available at:
Ottlé, C. and Vidal-Madjar, D. (1992) 'Estimation of land surface temperature with NOAA9 data', Remote Sensing of Environment, 40(1), pp. 27-41.
Pauw, E., D., Saba, M. and Ali, S., H. (2015) Mapping climate change in Iraq and Jordan. ICARDA.
Peres, L.F. and DaCamara, C.C. (2005) 'Emissivity maps to retrieve land-surface temperature from MSG/SEVIRI', IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, 43(8), pp. 1834-1844.
Pinheiro, A., Mahoney, R., Privette, J. and Tucker, C. (2006) 'Development of a daily long term record of NOAA-14 AVHRR land surface temperature over Africa', Remote Sensing of Environment, 103(2), pp. 153-164.
Piringer, M., Grimmond, C., Joffre, S., Mestayer, P., Middleton, D., Rotach, M., Baklanov, A., De Ridder, K., Ferreira, J. and Guilloteau, E. (2002) 'Investigating the surface energy balance in urban areas–recent advances and future needs', Water, Air and Soil Pollution: Focus, 2(5-6), pp. 1-16.
Potchter, O., Goldman, D., Kadish, D. and Iluz, D. (2008) 'The oasis effect in an extremely hot and arid climate: The case of southern Israel', Journal of Arid Environments, 72(9), pp. 1721-1733.
Prata, A.J., 2002. Land surface temperature measurement from space: AATSR algorithm theoretical basis document. Contract Report to ESA, CSIRO Atmospheric Research, Aspendale, Victoria, Australia, 2002, pp.1-34.
Price, J.C. (1984) 'Land surface temperature measurements from the split window channels of the NOAA 7 Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer', Journal of Geophysical Research, 89(D5), pp. 7231-7237.
Price, J.C. (1979) 'Assessment of the urban heat island effect through the use of satellite data', Monthly Weather Review, 107(11), pp. 1554-1557.
Qin, Z., Karnieli, A. and Berliner, P. (2001) 'A mono-window algorithm for retrieving land surface temperature from Landsat TM data and its application to the Israel-Egypt border region', International Journal of Remote Sensing, 22(18), pp. 3719-3746.
Qiu, G., LI, H., Zhang, Q., Wan, C., Liang, X. and Li, X. (2013) 'Effects of evapotranspiration on mitigation of urban temperature by vegetation and urban agriculture', Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 12(8), pp. 1307-1315.
Qu, Z., Goetz, A.F.H. & Heidebrecht, K.B. (2000) 'High-accuracy atmosphere correction for hyperspectral data (HATCH)', Proceedings of the Ninth JPL Airborne Earth Sceince Workshop 1Jet Propul. Lab, Pasadena, USA, 23-25 February.
R Core Team (ed.) (2014) R: A language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria.
Ragnarsdóttir, K.V. and Banwart, S.A. (2015) Soil: The Life Supporting Skin of Earth.
Rajasekar, U. and Weng, Q. (2009) 'Urban heat island monitoring and analysis using a non-parametric model: A case study of Indianapolis', ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, 64(1), pp. 86-96.
Rao, P.K. and Winston, J.S. (1963) 'An investigation of some synoptic capabilities of atmospheric “window” measurements from satellite TIROS II', Journal of Applied Meteorology, 2(1), pp. 12-23.
Rao, P. (1972) 'Remote sensing of urban heat islands from an environmental satellite', Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 53(7), pp. 647.
Realmuto, V. (1990) 'Separating the effects of temperature and emissivity: Emissivity spectrum normalization', 2nd TIMS Workshop Pasadena, CA, USAJPL Publication, pp. 23-27.
Rees, G. and Rees, W.G. (2013) Physical principles of remote sensing. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge, CB2 8BS, United Kingdom.
Rizwan, A.M., Dennis, L.Y. and Chunho, L. (2008) 'A review on the generation, determination and mitigation of Urban Heat Island', Journal of Environmental Sciences, 20(1), pp. 120-128.
Roberts, D., Yamaguchi, Y. and Lyon, R. (1986) 'Comparison of various techniques for calibration of AIS data', NASA STI/Recon Technical Report N, 87, pp. 12970.
Robinson Peter, J. and Ann, H. (1999) Contemporary Climatology. Prentice Hall, London, UK.
Roth, M., Oke, T. and Emery, W. (1989) 'Satellite-derived urban heat islands from three coastal cities and the utilization of such data in urban climatology', International Journal of Remote Sensing, 10(11), pp. 1699-1720.
Runnalls, K. and Oke, T. (2000) 'Dynamics and controls of the near-surface heat island of Vancouver, British Columbia', Physical Geography, 21(4), pp. 283-304.
Saitoh, T., Shimada, T. and Hoshi, H. (1996) 'Modeling and simulation of the Tokyo urban heat island', Atmospheric Environment, 30(20), pp. 3431-3442.
Saleh, S. (2011) 'Impact of urban expansion on surface temperature in Baghdad, Iraq using remote sensing and GIS techniques', Canadian Journal on Environmental, Construction and Civil Engineering, 2(8), pp. 193-202.
Sarrat, C., Lemonsu, A., Masson, V. and Guedalia, D. (2006) 'Impact of urban heat island on regional atmospheric pollution', Atmospheric Environment, 40(10), pp. 1743-1758.
Schönert, M., Zillmann, E., Weichelt, H., Eitel, J.U.H., Magney, T.S., Lilienthal, H., Siegmann, B. and Jarmer, T., 2015. The Tasseled Cap Transformation for
RapidEye data and the estimation of vital and senescent crop parameters. The International Archives of Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences, 40(7), p.101.
Schultz, P. and Halpert, M. (1995) 'Global analysis of the relationships among a vegetation index, precipitation and land surface temperature', Remote Sensing, 16(15), pp. 2755-2777.
Schwarz, N., Schlink, U., Franck, U. and Großmann, K. (2012) 'Relationship of land surface and air temperatures and its implications for quantifying urban heat island indicators - an application for the city of Leipzig (Germany)', Ecological Indicators, 18, pp. 693-704.
SETS 2015 Erbil Deep Boreholes, Environmental Impact Assessment Report, World Vision International.
Shahmohamadi, P., Che-Ani, A., Abdullah, N., Tahir, M., Maulud, K. and Mohd-Nor, M. (2010) 'The Link between urbanization and climatic factors: a concept on formation of urban heat island', WSEAS Transactions on Environment and Development, 6(11), pp. 754-768.
Shahmohamadi, P., Che-Ani, A., Sodoudi, S. and Cubasch, U. (2012) 'Mitigating Urban Heat Island Effects in Tehran Metropolitan Area', in Budi Haryanto (ed.) Air Pollution - A Comprehensive Perspective. INTECH Open Access Publisher.
Sharif, A. (1998) Climate of the Erbil Region. PhD. University of Salahadden, Erbil, Iraq.
Shigeta, Y., Ohashi, Y. & Tsukamoto, O. (2009) 'Urban cool island in daytime - analysis by using thermal image and air temperature measurements', The Seventh International Conference on Urban Climate Yokohama, Japan, 29 June - 3 July.
Skelhorn, C. (2013) A fine scale assessment of urban greenspace impacts on microclimate and building energy in Manchester. PhD. University of Manchester. Available at:
Small, C. (2002) 'Multitemporal analysis of urban reflectance', Remote Sensing of Environment, 81(2), pp. 427-442.
Small, C. (2001) 'Estimation of urban vegetation abundance by spectral mixture analysis', International Journal of Remote Sensing, 22(7), pp. 1305-1334.
Smith, J.O. (2010) Determination of the convective heat transfer coefficients from the surfaces of buildings within urban street canyons. University of Bath. Available at:
Smith, W. and Woolf, H. (1976) 'The use of eigenvectors of statistical covariance matrices for interpreting satellite sounding radiometer observations', Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 33(7), pp. 1127-1140.
Snyder, W.C., Wan, Z., Zhang, Y. and Feng, Y. (1998) 'Classification-based emissivity for land surface temperature measurement from space', International Journal of Remote Sensing, 19(14), pp. 2753-2774.
Sobrino, J. and Raissouni, N. (2000) 'Toward remote sensing methods for land cover dynamic monitoring: application to Morocco', International Journal of Remote Sensing, 21(2), pp. 353-366.
Sobrino, J.A., Jiménez-Muñoz, J.C., Labed-Nachbrand, J. and Nerry, F. (2002) 'Surface emissivity retrieval from digital airborne imaging spectrometer data', Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres (1984–2012), 107(D23), pp. ACL 24-1-ACL 24-13.
Sobrino, J.A., Jiménez-Muñoz, J.C. and Paolini, L. (2004) 'Land surface temperature retrieval from LANDSAT TM 5', Remote Sensing of Environment, 90(4), pp. 434-440.
Sofer, M. and Potchter, O. (2006) 'The urban heat island of a city in an arid zone: the case of Eilat, Israel', Theoretical and Applied Climatology, 85(1-2), pp. 81-88.
Solano, R., Didan, K., Jacobson, A. and Huete, A., 2010. MODIS vegetation index user’s guide (MOD13 series). Vegetation Index and Phenology Lab, The University of Arizona, pp.1-38.
Song, C., Woodcock, C.E. and Li, X. (2002) 'The spectral/temporal manifestation of forest succession in optical imagery: The potential of multitemporal imagery', Remote Sensing of Environment, 82(2), pp. 285-302.
Souch, C. and Grimmond, S. (2006) 'Applied climatology: urban climate', Progress in Physical Geography, 30(2), pp. 270.
Srivanit, M. and Hokao, K. (2012) 'Thermal Infrared Remote Sensing for Urban Climate and Environmental Studies: An Application for the City of Bangkok, Thailand', JARS Journal of Architectural/Planning Research and Studies, 9(1), pp. 83-100.
Srivastava, P., Majumdar, T. and Bhattacharya, A.K. (2009) 'Surface temperature estimation in Singhbhum Shear Zone of India using Landsat-7 ETM thermal infrared data', Advances in space research, 43(10), pp. 1563-1574.
Stathopoulou, M. and Cartalis, C. (2007) 'Daytime urban heat islands from Landsat ETM and Corine land cover data: An application to major cities in Greece', Solar Energy, 81(3), pp. 358-368.
Steeneveld, G., Koopmans, S., Heusinkveld, B. and Theeuwes, N. (2014) 'Refreshing the role of open water surfaces on mitigating the maximum urban heat island effect', Landscape and Urban Planning, 121, pp. 92-96.
Steinecke, K. (1999) 'Urban climatological studies in the Reykjavık subarctic environment, Iceland', Atmospheric Environment, 33(24), pp. 4157-4162.
Stevens, S., S., 1946, On the Theory of Scales of Measurement. Science, 103 (2684), pp. 677–680. doi:10.1126/science.103.2684.677.
Stewart, I.D. (2011) Redefining the urban heat island. PhD. University of British Columbia. Available at:
Stewart, I.D., Oke, T. and Krayenhoff, E.S. (2014) 'Evaluation of the ‘local climate zone’scheme using temperature observations and model simulations', International Journal of Climatology, 34(4), pp. 1062-1080.
Stewart, I. & Oke, T. (2009) 'Newly developed “thermal climate zones” for defining and measuring urban heat island magnitude in the canopy layer', Eighth Symposium on Urban Environment, Phoenix, AZ, USA.
Streutker, D.R. (2002) 'A remote sensing study of the urban heat island of Houston, Texas', International Journal of Remote Sensing, 23(13), pp. 2595-2608.
Su, Y., Foody, G.M. and Cheng, K. (2012) 'Spatial non-stationarity in the relationships between land cover and surface temperature in an urban heat island and its impacts on thermally sensitive populations', Landscape and Urban Planning, 107(2), pp. 172-180.
Sun, D. and Kafatos, M. (2007) 'Note on the NDVI-LST relationship and the use of temperature-related drought indices over North America', Geophysical Research Letters, 34(24).
Susca, T., Gaffin, S. and Dell’Osso, G. (2011) 'Positive effects of vegetation: Urban heat island and green roofs', Environmental Pollution, 159(8), pp. 2119-2126.
Susskind, J., Barnet, C.D. and Blaisdell, J.M. (2003) 'Retrieval of atmospheric and surface parameters from AIRS/AMSU/HSB data in the presence of clouds', IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, 41(2), pp. 390-409.
Szymanowski, M. and Kryza, M. (2012) 'Local regression models for spatial interpolation of urban heat island - an example from Wrocław, SW Poland', Theoretical and Applied Climatology, 108(1-2), pp. 53-71.
Szymanowski, M. and Kryza, M. (2009) 'GIS-based techniques for urban heat island spatialization', Climate Research, 38(2), pp. 171.
Taha, H. (1997) 'Urban climates and heat islands: albedo, evapotranspiration, and anthropogenic heat', Energy and Buildings, 25(2), pp. 99-103.
Taha, H., Akbari, H. and Rosenfeld, A. (1991) 'Heat island and oasis effects of vegetative canopies: micro-meteorological field-measurements', Theoretical and Applied Climatology, 44(2), pp. 123-138.
Tan, J., Zheng, Y., Tang, X., Guo, C., Li, L., Song, G., Zhen, X., Yuan, D., Kalkstein, A.J. and Li, F. (2010) 'The urban heat island and its impact on heat waves and human health in Shanghai', International journal of biometeorology, 54(1), pp. 75-84.
Tarle, M. (2010) Application of GIS in Defining Urban Heat Island Using Transect Data: Urban Heat Island Using GIS Mapping. Saarbrücken, Germany: Lambert Academic Publishing.
Tarleton, L.F. and Katz, R.W. (1995) 'Statistical explanation for trends in extreme summer temperatures at Phoenix, Arizona', Journal of Climate, 8(6), pp. 1704-1708.
Tempfli, K., Huurneman, G., Bakker, W., Janssen, L., Bakker, W., Feringa, W., Gieske, A., Grabmaier, K., Hecker, C. and Horn, J. (2009) Principles of remote sensing: an introductory textbook. 4th Edition edn. Enschede, Netherlands: ITC.
Terjung, W.H. and O'Rourke, P.A. (1980a) 'Simulating the causal elements of urban heat islands', Boundary-Layer Meteorology, 19(1), pp. 93-118.
Terjung, W.H. and O'Rourke, P.A. (1980b) Energy exchanges in urban landscapes: selected climatic models. CW Thornthwaite Associates, Laboratory of Climatology.
Tiangco, M., Lagmay, A. and Argete, J. (2008) 'ASTER-based study of the night‐time urban heat island effect in Metro Manila', International Journal of Remote Sensing, 29(10), pp. 2799-2818.
Todd, S., Hoffer, R. and Milchunas, D. (1998) 'Biomass estimation on grazed and ungrazed rangelands using spectral indices', International Journal of Remote Sensing, 19(3), pp. 427-438.
Tomlinson, C., Prieto-Lopez, T., Bassett, R., Chapman, L., Cai, X., Thornes, J. and Baker, C. (2013) 'Showcasing urban heat island work in Birmingham–measuring, monitoring, modelling and more', Weather, 68(2), pp. 44-49.
Tonkaz, T. and Cetin, M. (2007) 'Effects of urbanization and land-use type on monthly extreme temperatures in a developing semi-arid region, Turkey', Journal of Arid Environments, 68(1), pp. 143-158.
Tran, H., Uchihama, D., Ochi, S. and Yasuoka, Y. (2006) 'Assessment with satellite data of the urban heat island effects in Asian mega cities', International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation, 8(1), pp. 34-48.
Trenberth, K.E. (2004) 'Climatology (communication arising): rural land-use change and climate', Nature, 427(6971), pp. 213-213.
Tupin, F., Inglada, J. and Nicolas, J. (2014) Remote Sensing Imagery. Hoboken, NJ, USA: John Wiley & Sons.
Ukwattage, N. and Dayawansa, N. (2012) 'Urban Heat Islands and the Energy Demand: An Analysis for Colombo City of Sri Lanka Using Thermal Remote Sensing Data', International Journal of Remote Sensing and GIS, 1(2), pp. 124-131.
Ulivieri, C., Castronuovo, M., Francioni, R. and Cardillo, A. (1994) 'A split window algorithm for estimating land surface temperature from satellites', Advances in Space Research, 14(3), pp. 59-65.
Unger, J., Gál, T., Rakonczai, J., Musci, L., Szatman, J. & Tobak, Z. (2009) 'Air temperature versus surface temperature in urban environment', 7th international conference on urban climate Yokohama, Japan, 29 June - 3 July.
Upmanis, H., Eliasson, I. and Lindqvist, S. (1998) 'The influence of green areas on nocturnal temperatures in a high latitude city (Göteborg, Sweden)', International Journal of Climatology, 18(6), pp. 681-700.
Ur, J., De Jong, L., Giraud, J., Osborne, J.F. and MacGinnis, J. (2013) 'Ancient cities and landscapes in the kurdistan region of Iraq: The Erbil plain archaeological survey 2012 season', Iraq, 75, pp. 89-117. (2010) Heat Island Types. Available at: (Accessed: 30 March 2016).
USGS (2016) Landsat Data. Available at:
USGS (2013) Using the USGS Landsat 8 Product. Available at:
Van de Griend, A. and Owe, M. (1993) 'On the relationship between thermal emissivity and the normalized difference vegetation index for natural surfaces', International Journal of Remote Sensing, 14(6), pp. 1119-1131.
Voogt, J. (2002) Urban heat island: Causes and consecuences of global environmental change. Chichester: John Wiley and Sons, Ltd.
Voogt, J.A. (2004) Urban heat islands: hotter cities. Available at:
Voogt, J.A. and Oke, T.R. (2003) 'Thermal remote sensing of urban climates', Remote Sensing of Environment, 86(3), pp. 370-384.
Vowles G. (2013) Urban Heat Islands. Available at:
Wan, Z., 2007. Collection-5 MODIS land surface temperature products users’ guide. ICESS, University of California, Santa Barbara.
Wan, Z. and Dozier, J. (1996) 'A generalized split-window algorithm for retrieving land-surface temperature from space', IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, 34(4), pp. 892-905.
Wan, Z. and Li, Z. (1997) 'A physics-based algorithm for retrieving land-surface emissivity and temperature from EOS/MODIS data', IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, 35(4), pp. 980-996.
Wang, F., Qin, Z., Song, C., Tu, L., Karnieli, A. and Zhao, S. (2015) 'An Improved Mono-Window Algorithm for Land Surface Temperature Retrieval from Landsat 8 Thermal Infrared Sensor Data', Remote Sensing, 7(4), pp. 4268-4289.
Wark, D.Q., Yamamoto, G. and Lienesch, J. (1962) 'Methods of estimating infrared flux and surface temperature from meteorological satellites', Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 19(5), pp. 369-384.
Watson, C. (2012) Analysis of urban heat island climates along the I-85/I-40 corridor in central North Carolina. PhD. University of North Carolina at Greensboro. Available at:
Watson, K. (1992) 'Two-temperature method for measuring emissivity', Remote Sensing of Environment, 42(2), pp. 117-121.
Wen, L., Lü, S., Chen, S., Meng, X. and Bao, Y. (2005) 'Numerical simulation of cold island effect in Jinta Oasis summer', Plateau Meteorology, 24(6), pp. 865-871.
Weng, Q. (2009) 'Thermal infrared remote sensing for urban climate and environmental studies: Methods, applications, and trends', ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, 64(4), pp. 335-344.
Weng, Q. (2001) 'A remote sensing? GIS evaluation of urban expansion and its impact on surface temperature in the Zhujiang Delta, China', International Journal of Remote Sensing, 22(10), pp. 1999-2014.
Weng, Q. and Lu, D. (2008) 'A sub-pixel analysis of urbanization effect on land surface temperature and its interplay with impervious surface and vegetation coverage in Indianapolis, United States', International journal of applied earth observation and geoinformation, 10(1), pp. 68-83.
Weng, Q., Lu, D. and Schubring, J. (2004) 'Estimation of land surface temperature–vegetation abundance relationship for urban heat island studies', Remote Sensing of Environment, 89(4), pp. 467-483.
Wickham, H. (2009) ggplot2: elegant graphics for data analysis. Springer Science & Business Media.
Witherick, M., Ross, S.R. and Small, R.J. (2001) A modern dictionary of geography. Oxford University Press. Oxford, OX2 6DP, UK.
Wong, N.H. and Yu, C. (2005) 'Study of green areas and urban heat island in a tropical city', Habitat International, 29(3), pp. 547-558.
Wu, C. and Murray, A.T. (2003) 'Estimating impervious surface distribution by spectral mixture analysis', Remote Sensing of Environment, 84(4), pp. 493-505.
Wu, W. (2014) 'The generalized difference vegetation index (GDVI) for dryland characterization', Remote Sensing, 6(2), pp. 1211-1233.
Wuertz, D. and Chalabi, Y. (2009) 'timeSeries: Rmetrics-Financial Time Series Objects', R package version, 2100.
Xiao, H. and Weng, Q. (2007) 'The impact of land use and land cover changes on land surface temperature in a karst area of China', Journal of environmental management, 85(1), pp. 245-257.
Xu, H. (2007) 'Extraction of urban built-up land features from Landsat imagery using a thematicoriented index combination technique', Photogrammetric Engineering & Remote Sensing, 73(12), pp. 1381-1391.
Xu, Y., Qin, Z. & Lv, J. (2008) 'Comparative analysis of urban heat island and associated land cover change based in Suzhou City using Landsat data', International Workshop on Education Technology and Training and International Workshop on Geoscience and Remote Sensing Shanghai; China, 21-22 December.
Yamashita, S., Sekine, K., Shoda, M., Yamashita, K. and Hara, Y. (1986) 'On relationships between heat island and sky view factor in the cities of Tama River basin, Japan', Atmospheric Environment (1967), 20(4), pp. 681-686.
Yao, Y., Liang, S., Cheng, J., Liu, S., Fisher, J.B., Zhang, X., Jia, K., Zhao, X., Qin, Q. and Zhao, B. (2013) 'MODIS-driven estimation of terrestrial latent heat flux in China based on a modified Priestley–Taylor algorithm', Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 171, pp. 187-202.
Youneszadeh, J.S. (2013) The effect of land use on land surface temperature in the Netherlands. Master. Lund University. Available at:
Young, S.J., Johnson, B.R. and Hackwell, J.A. (2002) 'An in-scene method for atmospheric compensation of thermal hyperspectral data', Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres (1984–2012), 107(D24), pp. ACH 14-1-ACH 14-20.
Yu, C. and Hien, W.N. (2006) 'Thermal benefits of city parks', Energy and Buildings, 38(2), pp. 105-120.
Yuan, F. and Bauer, M.E. (2007) 'Comparison of impervious surface area and normalized difference vegetation index as indicators of surface urban heat island effects in Landsat imagery', Remote Sensing of Environment, 106(3), pp. 375-386.
Zakaria, S., Al-Ansari, N., Mustafa, Y.T., Alshibli, M.D.J. and Knutsson, S., 2013. Macro Rain Water Harvesting Network to Estimate Annual Runoff at Koysinjaq (Koya) District, Kurdistan Region of Iraq. Engineering, 5(12), p.956.
Zha, Y., Gao, J. and Ni, S. (2003) 'Use of normalized difference built-up index in automatically mapping urban areas from TM imagery', International Journal of Remote Sensing, 24(3), pp. 583-594.
Zhang, H., Qi, Z., Ye, X., Cai, Y., Ma, W. and Chen, M. (2013) 'Analysis of land use/land cover change, population shift, and their effects on spatiotemporal patterns of urban heat islands in metropolitan Shanghai, China', Applied Geography, 44, pp. 121-133.
Zhang, J., Wang, Y. and Wang, Z. (2007) 'Change analysis of land surface temperature based on robust statistics in the estuarine area of Pearl River (China) from 1990 to 2000 by Landsat TM/ETM data', International Journal of Remote Sensing, 28(10), pp. 2383-2390.
Zhang, Z., Ji, M., Shu, J., Deng, Z. and Wu, Y. (2008) 'Surface urban heat island in Shanghai, China: Examining the relationship between land surface temperature and impervious surface fractions derived from Landsat ETM imagery', The International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences, 37, pp. 601-606.
Zhao, L., Lee, X., Smith, R.B. and Oleson, K. (2014) 'Strong contributions of local background climate to urban heat islands', Nature, 511(7508), pp. 216-219.
Zhao, W., Li, Z., Wu, H., Tang, B., Zhang, X., Song, X. and Zhou, G. (2013) 'Determination of bare surface soil moisture from combined temporal evolution of land surface temperature and net surface shortwave radiation', Hydrological Processes, 27(19), pp. 2825-2833.
Zhou, L., Dickinson, R.E., Tian, Y., Fang, J., Li, Q., Kaufmann, R.K., Tucker, C.J. and Myneni, R.B. (2004) 'Evidence for a significant urbanization effect on climate in China', Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 101(26), pp. 9540-9544




كوكب المنى


ليست هناك تعليقات
إرسال تعليق