الاحتياجات المائية لمحاصيل الخضروات
الصيفية في محافظة ذي قار
رسالة تقدم بها الطالب
عباس عيال محمد الخاقاني
إلى مجلس كلية الآداب - جامعة ذي قار
وهي جزء من متطلبات نيل درجة الماجستير آداب
عبد الرزاق خيون خضير آل محميد
الأستاذ المساعد الدكتور
ماجد عبدالله جابر التريجاوي
1441هـ - 2020م
Water Requirements of summer vegetable crops
in Dhi Qar Governorate
A Thesis submuted BY
Abbas Ayal Mohammed
Of the college of Arts University of the Dhi Qar in partial fulfillment of the Requirements for the degree of master of Arts in Geography
Abdul Razak Khyoun AL Mahimid
Prof. Dr Assistant
Majid Abdullah Jabir
2020 A.D. 1441 A.H
This study aims to estimate the water needs of summer vegetable crops in Dhi Qar Governorate. It represents a critical importance especially in dry and semi-dry areas. It helps to determine the amount of irrigation water and the areas that can be irrigated. It also helps to choose the appropriate irrigation method by reducing the amount of water losses. For these reasons as stated, the study came to know the water needs of summer vegetable crops, as well as determining the water consumption, water losses and other requirements.
The study showed that there is a group of geographical factors that affect the water needs of summer vegetables in Dhi Qar. It’s represented by natural and human factors (location, surface, soil, water resources, irrigation methods, crop type, irrigation channels, agricultural operations) as well as the most prominent influence of climate elements (Solar radiation, heat, humidity, wind, rain, evaporation, dust phenomena). This leads to the variation of timing and place for water needs.
The study depended on estimating the water needs of summer vegetable crops on three equations: Thornthwaite, Naguib Kharoufa and Banman, modified using the program (CROPWAT8.0). These equations are also recommended by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO-56) in order to estimate the climate water balance. According to the climatic conditions, the results of these equations show that the evaporation values - succeeded ranged between (2838.7, 2550.1, 2773.6) mm / year respectively. This led to a high amount of water deficit in Dhi Qar, which was reflected in the high values of water consumption, water losses and other requirements. It made the total water needs record high values of (62669.9, 53449.5 m 3) for the Thornthwaite and Naguib Kharoufa equations. Lastly, the Banman equation resulted the total water requirements (24,889.65 - 29.866 - 56,000.5, m3) for irrigation methods (drip, spray, surface) respectively.
The study concluded that the structures of the crop for the average area cultivated with summer vegetables for agricultural seasons (2016, 2017, 2018) consists of ten types of crops and a total area estimated at (39130) acres. Watermelons were ranked highest and at a rate (30%) of the crop area. Tomatoes came in last place with a ratio (1%) of the area planted with summer vegetables. This was reflected in the water composition and the actual water Abstract b needs of these crops, as the total sum reached (2,167,391,95.1-1,937,922,69.1 m3) for the Thornthuyt and Naguib equations Sheep respectively, according to the Benman equation, the actual water needs were estimated at (83,330,768.2- 99,991,472.5-187,479,377.5 m3) for irrigation methods (drip, spray, surface).
The study developed a proposed irrigation schedule for summer vegetable crops, using the program (CROPWAT8.0). This program works to divide the water needs into a number of irrigations distributed along the crop growth period and in enough quantities to meet the water crop needs, climatic conditions, soil type and the determinants adopted by the researcher while using the program.