التباين المكاني لخصائص السكان
في محافظة أربيل
أطروحة تقدم بها الطالب
حيدر حسين عبد الستار رمضان المندلاوي
إلى مجلس كلية التربية للعلوم الإنسانية - ابن رشد /
جامعة بغداد، وهي جزء من متطلبات نيل شهادة
دكتوراه فلسفة في الجغرافية
سامي عزيز العتبي
الأستاذ المساعد الدكتورة
ندى نجيب سلمان
The Spatial Variation Characteristic
of Population in Erbil
A Dissertation Submitted by
Hayder Hussein Abdulsattar
To the Council of College of Education Ibn Rushd-Baghdad University as Partial Fulfillments for The Requirements to Award Ph.D. Degree in Population Geography
Sami Azeez Abbas
Asst. Prof. Dr.
Nada Najib Salman
Due to the important of the Phenomenon of population in the geographical region plus it's position in geographical analysis and Follow-up it's developments and personification of its changes as well as to analysis it's position relationships for Present and future .
The study was marked as one of the great scientific Efforts to analysis the Phenomenon of population in Erbil from it's distributions and growth and the affecting factors and the characteristics of the population structure, According to the research and analysis of geographic population and the analysis supported these geographical facts with a Quantitative analysis to show the position relationships of the Variation population Phenomenon to stop and rate on the Demographic situation in the province .
The first chapter is about "geographic distributions of population" which includes three topics, first "population distribution", the second "Population and Coefficient of concentration" and the third "geographic distributions of population".
The second chapter is about "the population size and growth" and includes three topics too which are: the first "the population size and growth trends" and the second "population growth factors" the position relationships of Variation between Fertility and migration in the province".
And the third chapter is about Characteristics and structure population "includes four topics" which are: "age and gender structure" and "social Characteristics "the economic structure" and "the position relationships because of the inequality of Illiteracy and Manpower in the province".
Below what the study has proved:
- The variance of the population distributions .Erbil district have the great population in the province which estimated about (46.56%) in 1977 and then increased to (72.51 %) in 1987 because of the military operation in the other districts reached according to the estimation (63.67%) in 2012 to other districts to reflect the population.
- The study has shown that the population growth rate has increased since the first census to the max in the period between (1977 -1997) about (3,58%) the fall to (1,45%) in the period(2012 -2007) but the other districts While (Khabat - Irbil - Soran) The highest rates Ghuman was the lowest .
- The Quantitative analysis of the position relationships of the disparity of Fertility showed that the independent changes like of (the mother education - career - the father education - His Career if wage earner or an employment - the environment - the family income - duration of married life) Must agrees with geographic theory and it's in influence of the Fertility.
- The Quantitative analysis of the position relationships of the disparity of Fertility of people's migration in province showed that the independent changes (the factors) like the education level (High school and more) the bachelors males at age (12 and More) – the Migrants (country side) Causal strong connection with people's migration rate.
- The study about the special age structure has shown the young people (less than 14 years) rated the highest level about (49,69%) in 1987 . and the young adults at age (14- 44 year ) rated about (46,45%) in 2012 which was the highest in 2012 reached about (11.86%) . the old people (More than 65 year) the highest rate was in 1956 reached about (5,17%) them to fall into (2,95%) in 2012 . and for the other districts and according to The field study found that the districts (Rowanduz - easy Erbil – Mirkhsor) had the highest rates to the category (less than 14 year ) and to the category (15-44 year ) the districts (Koya -snjaq – Erbil) and the category (64- 45 year) was in the (Goman - Mirgah Sur – Khabat) . while the highestrate of the category (65 and older ) was in Khabat – Shaqlawa) .
- Also during the study there was a decrease in illiteracy rate reached to (64.84%) in 1977 to (39.75%) in 1987 plus to (60.99%) in 2012 matched with increase in population In the other educations levels.
- The study has shown also that the active people economically was about (39.94%) in 2012 to (60.05%) of inactive people .and the employed people was about (91.32%) however the unemployed people was about (8.67%).
- And the position relationships to Varied to the illiteracy phenomenon in the province, the study has showed that the changes like (the environment at age 6 years and more (urban) – the environment at age 6 years and more (the countryside) - Enrolled at age 6 years (females) the unemployment – the family income – the family members (5 and more) Must agree with the geographic explanation to have a great, strong connection on the Variable (illiteracy).
- The study has shown also that the position relationships of the disparity of manpower has affected with the changes like (education level –high school or more) or who drop out – school – the age structure from (10-65 year) in (urban) and the age structure from (10-65 year) in (countryside) – the family members five or more - family members four or more Family income with level fits the geographic explanation logic.
In addition to the study below there are some suggestions
- Shall do a full Census to the province (Irbil) and all other provinces in Iraq to get, accurate and integrated data which enable the scholars to look on the population problems and come out with a successful results as well as making a comprehensives which can contribute to solve many of the problems Particularly, budget .
- Taking care of the countryside and make agriculture projects which considered as the first step to the Comprehensive development to amendment to the high Density by Deliver services a
- Shall Update and regulate the registration way of births and deaths because of it's importance to the future calculation.
- Shall taking a good care of the education, despite the positive Indicators in the province and the decrease of the illiteracy rates but the university should taking the same care by Provide some financial amounts for development as well as open and renew to the department which contributes in Creating scientific and technical efficiencies.
- Shall make an industrial projects to employ all the increasing manpower with necessity of make sort of balance the graduation and business particularly in tourism .as well as making Trade zones (free zones).
- The study Annexed with Maps illustrative processing techniques of geographic information systems (GIS) and supported with a group of the Schedules and data which increased from the gravity phenomena analysis was presented some data formats graphic illustrations. Also multi and variety resources which enriched the study.
Finally, the study represents one of the scientific studied which specialized in analyzing the populations phenomena in populations geography hopefully to gain the scientific success.
May ALLAH give us the Help and Guide.
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