مسح بيئي لمياه الجزء الجنوبي من نهر الغراف - جنوب العراق - كامل كاظم فهد - أطروحة دكتوراه 2006م

مسح بيئي لمياه الجزء الجنوبي 

من نهر الغراف - جنوب العراق  

أطروحة تقدم بها

كامل كاظم فهد

ماجستير علوم زراعية - قسم الأسماك والثروة البحرية 2001م

إلى كلية الزراعة - جامعة البصرة 

وهي جزء من متطلبات نيل شهادة دكتوراه فلسفة 

في علوم الأسماك والثروة البحرية

(بيئة وتلوث مائي)

صفر 1426هـ - أذار 2006م

Ecological survey

for southern sector of

Al-Garaf River, southern



Submitted to the

Council of the College of Agriculture,

University of Basrah in partial fulfilment for the

requirement of the degree of Doctor of

Philosophy in Fisheries and Marine Resources


Kamel k. fahad

B.S.c. Agriculture sciences,Fisheries

and Marine Resources,


M.S.c Agriculture sciences,Fisheries

and Marine Resources,


March /2006 Sfr /1426


  The study is aiming at surveying the ecological status of Al-Garaf River, within the southern sector. Ecological parameters( water and air temperatures; transparency; water salinity; D.O; pH; freeCO2; total alkalinity; total hardness BOD; and chlorophyll-a), nutrients (NO3; NO2 and PO4) were also measured. Concentration of heavy metals (Ni, Ca, and Cu & Zn) in water and sediments were also determined. A number of organisms namely Kishni Liza abu; calm Unio tigridis; crab Sesarma bolengeri and Ceratopyllum demersum were selected to investigate the concentration of these elements in buds and mussels. The study was also taken in consideration estimation of fish catches in the study area. Three stations were chosen to implement the study. The former station supply Basrah, Thi Qar, Shatra and Garaf water enterprises with crude water .The second station is situated 8 kms apart from the former. The third station is selected at distance of 15 kms from the second one after the river pass Al-Garaf district. Water samples for ecological analyses, nutrient’s measurements and determination the concentrations of heavy metals were collected on monthly basis, whereas samples for fishes, sediments, aquatic plants, calm and crabs were studied on seasonal basis. The study reveals monthly variations in air and water temperature in all investigated stations. The lowest recorded light penetration value (25 Cm) was in November and the highest (68 Cm) was in March in station 1. The higher salinity value (5.7 g/l) was also measured from sta.1 in August whereas the lowest (1.5 g/l) was encountered in May. Dissolved oxygen revealed low values during August (6.2 mg/l) and the highest was in February (9.5 mg/l). Variation in pH values were narrow and within the alkaline direction. Carbon dioxide showed higher concentrations. The highest (6 mg/l) was measured in July. Total alkalinity exhibited the lowest concentrations (140 mg/l) in station 1 during February, whereas the highest (200 mg/l) was in March. Total hardness showed highest values in July (460 mg/l) in station 3 and the lowest (180 mg/l) in January at station 1. BOD revealed the lowest value (1.1 mg/l) in March and the highest (6.1 mg/l) in July at station 3. Chlorophyll a showed the minimal values (0.79 mg/m3) in January and the maximum (9.11 mg/m3) in February. The lowest value of NO3 (23.48 μg/l) and the highest (57.16 μg/l) were recorded from station 3. However NO2 revealed distinct decline in concentrations. The lowest was during January (0.04 μg/l) in station 2 and the highest (0.8 μg/l) in PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com y July from the same station. Both the lowest and highest values of phosphate were measured from station 2 during August (0.32 μg/l) and May (4.93 μg/l) respectively. The minimal value of Ni (0.005 μg/l) was encountered in March in station 2 and the highest (680.56 μg/l) in November. Yearly averages of Ni concentration were 42.72, 213.94, 51.53, 85.71 and 56.72 μg/g dry wt. of fish, calm, aquatic plant and sediments respectively. The highest recorded value for Cd (305.15 μg/l) was encountered in June at station 3. The lowest recorded concentration of Cd was measured from bivalves (0.66 μg/g dry wt). Annual means of Cd concentration were 1.68, 1.03, and 5.45, 1.81.and 1.7 μg/g dry wt. in fishes, Calm, Crab, aquatic plant and sediments respectively. The highest value was measured in June. Cu showed the highest concentrations in Crab (40.12 μg/g dry wt) measured in spring. Annual mean values for Cu were 14.15, 3.49, 28.35, 11.37 and 13.94 μg/g dry wt. in fish, calm, aquatic plant and sediment respectively. The lowest values (15.2 μg/g dry wt.) were recorded from Calm tissues in spring. The present value recorded eleven species of fish nine of which belong to Cyprinidae. Mugilidae were only represented by Liza abu , whereas Siluridae was represented with Parasilurus triostegus and Bagridae possessed Mystus pelusius only.

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