UNSUSTAINABLE TRANSPORT: City transport in the new century

كوكب الجغرافيا مارس 12, 2020 مارس 12, 2020
0 تعليق
-A A +A


City transport in the new century

(transport, development and sustainability series): 

the transport crisis

1st Edition

David Banister

Taylor & Francis Group
London AND New York, NY 



  We have not inherited the Earth from our ancestors, but we are borrowing it for our children. (Old Indian Saying).
  One of the major problems facing authors when writing books is to think of a suitable title that both refl ects the content of the book and will catch the eye of the potential reader. Further, all good book titles comprise no more than three words. For me, this makes inspiration diffi cult, as I have already used up all possible combinations of the relevant three words, hence this book has a more cryptic title that should be followed by its real content, sustainable urban development and transport.
‘Unsustainable transport’ is meant to suggest that we have a series of choices to make with respect to transport and sustainable development. Even making no choice needs to be placed within the same context, as that would have important implications for cities and regions. The book presents a global and local perspective on the nature of sustainable development, and the crucial role that transport has in making or breaking cities. It also presents the range of options available, together with a commentary on the barriers to implementation and explanations of why outcomes often do not match up to expectations. There is an investigation of cities in developing countries, which are growing at a phenomenal rate and where many of the same problems are now manifesting themselves. But so is a different set of innovative solutions. Visions of the sustainable city are presented, together with a summary of the packages of policy measures in transport and other sectors that could be used to move in a more ‘sustainable’ direction.

  Throughout the book, I have taken a positive line in the argument, stating that sustainable urban development is a feasible and necessary policy objective, and that transport has a major role to play in its achievement. Even though many of the trends are in the wrong direction (unsustainable) and there are many barriers to effective implementation, this does not mean that all hope is lost. The book refl ects the opportunities for a fundamental shift in thinking about the future of transport policy. Realization of that aim can be achieved if transport is placed at the centre of sustainable urban development.

 Ten years ago, the infl uential Royal Commission on Environmental Pollution stated that the key to a sustainable transport policy is coordinated action by government and industry on several fronts. Economic growth cannot continue in a sustainable way unless transport and land use planning are integrated. Technology must be improved to cut fuel consumption and make vehicles less polluting. New residential, commercial and leisure developments should be sensibly located, so that people do not have to travel long distances, and are not forced to use cars for their journeys. The cost of private transport will have to rise because at the moment it does not refl ect damage done to health and the environment. Resources should be switched from road-building to improving public transport. 

  Part of the thinking behind this book is to refl ect on what has been achieved over this 10-year period, to see where we have gone wrong and where progress has been made. As T.S. Eliot is reported to have said ‘and the end of all our exploring will be to arrive where we started and know the place for the fi rst time’. We have now reached that point, and it is time to decide whether there is now a suffi cient momentum to move towards sustainable transport. 

David Banister March 2005 


Preface vii
Acknowledgements ix
Abbreviations xi
01 Introduction 1
1.1 Introduction 1
1.2 Sustainable development 2
1.3 The debate 4
1.4 The car as an icon 5
1.5 Car ownership and car use 7
1.6 The structure of the book 9

Part 1

02 The global picture 11
2.1 Introduction 11
2.2 Proposition 1 – Transport is unsustainable 11
2.3 Proposition 2 – Sustainable urban development is dependent upon
the city being the centre of vitality, opportunity and wealth, and
that transport has a major role to play 14
2.4 The ten principles of sustainable development and transport 15
2.5 Global trends and key concepts 19
2.6 Conclusions 33
03 Sustainability and transport intensity 37
3.1 The economic background 37
3.2 The transport case 41
3.3 Transport intensity 42
3.4 Alternative measures of economic growth 49
3.5 Empirical evidence from the UK and the EU15 52
3.6 Changes in society and the economy 53
3.7 Conclusions 55
04 Public policy and sustainable transport 58
4.1 Introduction 58
4.2 Global perspectives on public policy 61
4.3 Local perspectives on public policy 65
4.4 Barriers to implementation 70
4.5 Conclusions 77
05 Institutional and organizational issues 80
5.1 Policy perspectives 80
5.2 Opportunities for change 82
5.3 Conclusions 92

Part 2

06 Transport and urban form 97
6.1 Introduction 97
6.2 The key relationships between transport and urban form 99
6.3 Case studies 121
6.4 Conclusions 124
07 Fiscal and regulatory measures 129
7.1 Introduction 129
7.2 Pricing 130
7.3 Distributional effects of congestion charging in London 140
7.4 Regulatory incentives 145
7.5 Carbon taxes 147
7.6 Air travel 148
7.7 Pricing and the United States 151
7.8 Comments on fiscal and regulatory measures 154
08 Technology and transport 157
8.1 Introduction 157
8.2 The technology 158
8.3 Freight 165
8.4 The limits of technology 166
09 The impact of ICT on transport 169
9.1 Introduction 169
9.2 Production 174
9.3 Living (and travelling) 179
9.4 Working 183
9.5 Conclusions 186
Part 3
10 Learning from cities with low levels of motorization 191
10.1 Introduction 191
10.2 Equity 193
10.3 Innovation 201
10.4 Institutions and governance 204
10.5 Conclusions 208
11 Visions for the future 211
11.1 Introduction 211
11.2 Visioning and backcasting 212
11.3 The scenario building process outlined 213
11.4 Discussion of the visions within cities in OECD countries 216
11.5 The north-south divide in perceptions of sustainable development 225
11.6 Discussion of the visions within cities in non-OECD countries 227
11.7 Conclusions 229
12 Conclusions 233
12.1 Sustainable transport planning 233
12.2 The achievement of sustainable transport objectives 237
12.3 Importance of involving the people 240
12.4 Sustainable urban development and transport 246
References 256
Index 281


↳    mediafire

↳      epdf.pub

شارك المقال لتنفع به غيرك

إرسال تعليق

0 تعليقات