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Introduction to Hydrometeorology BY J. P. BRUCE

Introduction to


Hydrometeorology



BY


J. P. BRUCE


Environmental Management Service

Environment Canada

Ontario, Canada



AND


R. H. CLARK

Inland Waters Directorate

Environment Canada

Ottawa, Ontario, Canada


PERGAMON PRESS


OXFORD  NEW YORK  TORONTO  

SYDNEY  PARIS FRANKFURT



CHAPTER 1
 
INTRODUCTION 

 THE recent rapid development of earth sciences has given man a new insight into the nature of his environment and into possible methods of modifying or controlling this environment. Among the more important of the earth sciences are those dealing with the distribution and movement of fresh water on the globe. 

  Meteorology is the science dealing with the atmosphere and the movement of water Jjoth as vapour and as liquid in the air. 

  Hydrology is an earth science concerned with the distribution and occurrence of water on and under the earth's surface, that is, with " what happens to the rain ". Both sciences are concerned with the hydrologie cycle—the circulation of water from the oceans, through the atmosphere back to the oceans, or to the land and thence to the oceans again by overland and subterranean routes. This is the essence of the hydrologie cycle and the simplified diagram of Fig. 1.1 illustrates the cycle schematically. 

  The parameters of the hydrologie cycle which are most generally observed and recorded are precipitation, evaporation, lake and river levels, streamflow and groundwater. In this text the term " hydrologie data " is often used generically in reference to data on all phases of the cycle.


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