التحليل المكاني لمناسيب المياه الجوفية ونوعيتها في القسم الجنوبي الشرقي من قضاء الزبير
رسالة تقدمت بها
حنين صادق عبد العباس الركابي
إلى مجلس كلية التربية للعلوم الإنسانية جامعة البصرة
وهي جزء من متطلبات نيل درجة الماجستير في الجغرافيا
صفاء عبد الأمير رشم الأسدي
الأستاذ المساعد الدكتور
حسين بدر غالب المنصىري
1439هـ - 2017م
Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research
University of Basrah
College of Education for Human Sciences
Department of Geography
SPATICAL ANALYSIS OF GROUNDWATER LEVELS AND THEIR QUALITY IN THE DISTRICT OF AL- ZUBAIR USING GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS(GIS) AND WATER QUALITY INDEX (WQI)
A Thesis Submitted By :
Haneen Sadeq Abdel Abbas Al Rikabi
To the University of the Faculty of Education for Human Sciences
Safa Abdul Ameer Resham Al-Asadi
Hussein Badr Ghalib Al Mansory
1439 A.H 2017A.D
Groundwater is a major source of water resources in arid area because it is used in agriculture, domestic and industrial. The importance of groundwater is controlled by two main factors: the level determining the potential for groundwater utilization, and the quality of water, which greatly affects the extent to which water can be required in different uses.
This study was confined to the south-eastern part of Al-Zubayr district to represent the study area. It is located between two latitudes 30° 35’ 27” – 30° 01’ 33” and longitudes 47° 58’ 30” – 47° 22’ 30”. The total area is estimated at 2687 km2 representing 27% of the total area of the district. This area is featured by use of wells and the relative hight in the uses of groundwater and agricultural irrigation.
This study included analysis of spatial and temporal variation in groundwater levels in the study area during the period 2010-2014, and 15 wells were selected for this purpose. The study showed spatial and temporal variations in the groundwater level, with elevations in the southwestern regions of the study area rising by 32.05 meters, while in the north-eastern regions it decreased by 2.36 meters, due to a number of factors, most notably the surface factor. Typical of the winter and summer seasons, which gives a strong indication of the weakness of the climatic factor and rain in the influence of the groundwater level, while the role of human uses in water for irrigation is the biggest factor in these disparities.
This thesis included a study of groundwater quality whereas 30 wells were selected for this purpose and 30 samples were collected during the winter season, and 30 samples were collected during the summer season to detect the physical and chemical properties of the groundwater. Measures for pH, temperature and electrical conductivity have been recorded by field . As for the chemical properties that analyzed by laboratory were TDS and the main elements included the Cations such as sodium (Na), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), potassium (K), and the negative ions such as (chlorides) (Cl), sulfate (SO4) and bicarbonate (HCO3). The results of field and laboratory analyzes showed pH variation between 7.40 and 7.1 and the temperature between 31.5 and 26.5 ° C and the electrical conductivity between 1405 and 4410 dsi / m and the average of total concentration was between 10005 and 3205 mg/L although the concentration of all main ions was high in wells water that under study but mainly with calcium (Ca) to 768.1 mg/L represents the highest Cations while the concentration of chloride (Cl) increases to 2279.4 mg/L that represents the highest Anions.
The specific characteristics of the water were compared to international and Iraqi standards to determine their suitability for different uses and the water was unsuitabile for many uses. TDS exceeded the permissible limits for drinking, irrigation and industrial purposes except for some uses.