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MEDICAL GEOGRAPHY 1966 Moscow 1968

MEDICAL GEOGRAPHY


1966
Moscow 1968



GEOGRAPHY



Compiled by: D. V. Borisevich Doctor of Geographical Sciences

O. V. Vitkovsky Candidate of Geographical Sciences

S. A. Gavrilova Candidate of Geographical Sciences

N. K. Deparma Candidate of Biological Sciences

A. D. Lebedev Candidate of Biological Sciences

K. S. Losev Candidate of Geographical Sciences

A. A. Nasimovich Doctor of Geographical Sciences

I. I. Parkhomenko Candidate of Geographical Sciences

V. A. Polushkin Candidate of Geographical Sciences

Z. G. Ryabtseva Candidate of Geographical Sciences

A. A. Tolokonikova Candidate of Geographical Sciences

Academic Secretary: T. V. Galtseva Candidate of Geographical 

Editor in Chief: Y. V . Medvedkov Master of Geographical Sciences

GEOGRAPHY OF MALARIA

(A medical-geographical study of an ancient disease)

A.Y. Lysenko, I.N. Semashko

“A clearly described nosogeography is only half of the

issue. The other half is the causal nosogeography and

the understanding of the causes of the natural habitats

of the agents of the disease”.

V.N. Beklemishev, 1959.



1. Introduction

2. Dynamics of the spread of malaria during its original development

2.1. The initial nosoarea

2.2. The formation of the nosoarea

2.2.1. Stages of the formation of the nosoarea

2.2.2. The formation of the distribution areas of the individual types of malaria agent.

2.2.2.1. Distribution area of P. vivax

2.2.2.2. Distribution area of P. falciparum

2.2.2.3. Particularities of the distribution area of P. ovale

2.3 External borders of the nosoarea

2.3.1 Distribution area of Anopheles

2.3.1.1. Distribution area of Anopheles mosquitoes and conditioning factors

2.3.1.2 Distribution area of strains of Anopheles known to be vectors

2.3.2. Temperature limits on parasite development

2.3.3. Economic activity of the population and migration

2.3.4. The furthest boundaries of the nosoarea

3. Structure of the malaria distribution area during its peak period

3.1. Defi nition of nosoarea structure

3.2. Principles of the subdivision of malariogenic territories

3.2.1. Malariological zoning using climatic indicators

3.2.2. Malariological zoning using the principle of zoogeography

3.2.3. Malariological zoning and typological mapping using the principle of landscape

3.2.4. Developing typological malarial maps according to epidemic levels

3.3. Compiling a map of the “structure of the worldwide malaria distribution area based on primary endemic levels”

3.3.1. Basic requirements of the map of the “structure of the worldwide malaria distribution area according to initial endemic levels”

3.3.2. Analysis of the map of the “structure of the worldwide malaria distribution area according to initial endemic levels”

4. Dynamics of the distribution area following the beginning of mass anti-malaria activities

4.1. Spontaneous regression period

4.2. Dynamics of the nosoarea during the organised fi ght against and eradication of malaria

5. Structure of the contemporary malaria distribution area

5.1. Methods of evaluating risk of malaria infection

5.2. Compiling the map of the structure of the contemporary malaria distribution area according to risk of infection

5.2.1. Evaluation of the status of malaria eradication programmes across the world

5.2.2. European countries 

5.2.3. Asian countries

5.2.4. African countries

5.2.5. American countries

5.2.6. Characteristics and analysis of the map of the structure of the contemporary malaria distribution area according to risk of infection

6. Conclusion

Summary



SUMMARY 

   The worldwide malaria distribution area has been studied in detail. The origin of malaria as a human disease and the formation of its initial and fi lial distribution areas are discussed. New data on the links between malaria and abnormal haemoglobins have been studied, in order to understand the genesis of the malaria distribution area. The dynamics of the initial nosoarea with and without the use of organized anti-malaria measures have been studied. An analysis has been carried out into the main factors defi ning the contemporary nosoarea. The precise spread of species of Anopheles that are proven vectors has been compared with a list of all species across the world. The particularities of the species distribution areas of the malaria parasite have been considered. A map has been compiled, showing the spread of the main groups of P. vivax strains, the distribution area of P. ovale has been marked out for the fi rst time, and an analysis has been carried out into the factors which could explain its unique nature. The task of studying the structure of a nosoarea is defi ned using the example of malaria. This includes the division of the nosoarea into regions of stable and unstable epidemics; the subdivision of the territory of endemic malaria into parts with similar levels of infection among the population; the subdivision of the general malaria distribution area into species distribution areas and the isolation of regions occupied by subspecies and groups of parasite strains; and the isolation of regions with similar seasonal malaria occurrences. The residual nosoarea should be subdivided into parts that have a similar risk of infection for non-immune persons (in particular new arrivals) and the probability of malaria reoccurring in territories from which it had previously disappeared in the event of sources of the infection being imported. The fi rst maps have been introduced that show the worldwide malaria distribution area according to initial endemic level and risk of infection (valid for the end of 1965). The discussion of the formation and structure of the worldwide malaria distribution area facilitates a deeper understanding of the very specifi c epidemiology of the disease and allows for the planning of activities for malaria prevention in formerly infected territories


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