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WORLD REGIONAL GEOGRAPHY JOSEPH J. HOBBS

WORLD REGIONAL GEOGRAPHY


JOSEPH J. HOBBS

University of Missouri

Cartography by Andrew Dolan


SIXTH EDITION

Brooks/Cole

Australia ■ Mexico ■ Singapore ■ Spain ■ United Kingdom ■ United States ■ Japan ■ Korea





CONTENTS

CHAPTER 1

OBJECTIVES AND TOOLS OF WORLD

REGIONAL GEOGRAPHY 1

1.1 Welcome to World Regional Geography 1

1.2 The Language of Maps 7

1.3 New Geographic Technologies and Careers 12

Insights Core Location and Peripheral Location 9

CHAPTER 2

PHYSICAL PROCESSES THAT SHAPE

WORLD REGIONS 19

2.1 Geologic Processes and Landforms 20

2.2 Patterns of Climate and Vegetation 22

2.3 Biodiversity 30

2.4 The World’s Oceans 3

2.5 Global Environmental Change 32

Geography of Energy The Kyoto Protocol 36

CHAPTER 3

HUMAN PROCESSES THAT SHAPE

WORLD REGIONS 39

3.1 Two Revolutions That Have Changed

the Earth 40

3.2 The Geography of Development 42

3.3 The Geography of Population 62

3.4 Addressing Global Problems 62

Insights Globalization: The Process

and the Backlash 47

Insights The Fuelwood Crisis 48

Insights The Second Law of Thermodynamics 62

CHAPTER 4

A GEOGRAPHIC PROFILE OF EUROPE 67

4.1 Area and Population 68

4.2 Physical Geography and Human Adaptations 74

4.3 Cultural and Historical Geographies 79

4.4 Economic Geography 85

4.5 Geopolitical Issues 87

Insights Site and Situation 71

Regional Perspective Europe’s Immigration Issues 73

Insights Devolution 83

Insights Genetically Modified Foods and “Food Fights” 89




MODULE 4.1 MODULE 4.1

THE EUROPEAN CORE 96

4.1.1 The British Isles 98

4.1.2 France: Vive la Différence! 107

4.1.3 Great Germany 112

4.1.4 Benelux: Tolerance and Trade

in the Low Countries 114

4.1.5 Switzerland and Austria: Prosperous

Mountain Fastness 117

Insights Hedgerows 102

Geographic Spotlight London Town 103

Geography of Energy Europe’s Energy Alternatives 104

Insights The Primate City 111

Insights The Polder 115

MODULE 4.2 MODULE 4.2

THE EUROPEAN PERIPHERY 121

4.2.1 Northern Europe: Prosperous, Wild,

and Wired 122

4.2.2 Southern Europe: The Mediterranean World 129

4.2.3 Eastern Europe: Out from Behind the Curtain 136

Problem Landscape Save the Whales . . .

for Dinner 123

Ethnic Geography The Basque Country 132

The World’s Great Rivers The Danube 138

Ethnic Geography The Roma 140

CHAPTER 5

A GEOGRAPHIC PROFILE OF RUSSIA

AND THE NEAR ABROAD 151

5.1 Area and Population 152

5.2 Physical Geography and Human Adaptations 153

5.3 Cultural and Historical Geographies 161

5.4 Economic Geography 167

5.5 Geopolitical Issues 171

Insights Regional Names of Russia

and the Near Abroad 154

Insights The Russian Cross 156

The World’s Great Rivers The Volga 160

Insights Russia and Other Land Empires 164

Geography of the Sacred Stalingrad 166

Problem Landscape Chechnya 173

Geography of Energy Oil in the Caspian Basin 176




MODULE 5.1 MODULE 5.1

FRAGMENTATION AND REDEVELOPMENT IN

RUSSIA AND THE NEAR ABROAD 182

5.1.1 Peoples and Nations of the Fertile Triangle 183

5.1.2 Agriculture and Industry in the Russian Core 190

5.1.3 The Russian Far East 193

5.1.4 The Northern Lands of Russia 194

5.1.5 The Caucasus 199

5.1.6 The Central Asian Countries 201

Geographic Spotlight The Sex Trade 187

Problem Landscape Nuclear Waste in Russia’s

High Arctic 196

CHAPTER 6

A GEOGRAPHIC PROFILE OF THE MIDDLE

EAST AND NORTH AFRICA 208

6.1 Area and Population 209

6.2 Physical Geography and Human Adaptations 210

6.3 Cultural and Historical Geographies 221

6.4 Economic Geography 228

6.5 Geopolitical Issues 229

Perspectives from the Field Way-Finding

in the Desert 218

Geography of the Sacred Jerusalem 223

Insights Sunni and Shiite Muslims 227

Geography of Energy Middle Eastern Oil Pipelines 230

Geography of Terrorism What Does al-Qa’ida

Want? 236

MODULE 6.1 MODULE 6.1

THE MIDDLE EAST AND NORTH

AFRICA: MODERN STRUGGLES

IN AN ANCIENT LAND 240

6.1.1 The Arab-Israeli Conflict and Its Setting 241

6.1.2 Egypt: The Gift of the Nile 251

6.1.3 Sudan: Bridge between the Middle East

and Africa 253

6.1.4 Libya: Deserts, Oil, and a Reformed Survivor 255

6.1.5 Northwestern Africa: The Maghreb 256

6.1.6 The Gulf Oil Region 258

6.1.7 Turkey: Where East Meets West 269

6.1.8 Rugged, Strategic, Devastated Afghanistan 271

Problem Landscape Land for Peace 245

Ethnic Geography The Kurds 265

Insights Land Mines 274

CHAPTER 7

A GEOGRAPHIC PROFILE

OF MONSOON ASIA 278

7.1 Area and Population 279

7.2 Physical Geography and Human Adaptations 280

7.3 Cultural and Historical Geographies 289

7.4 Economic Geography 297

7.5 Geopolitical Issues 301

Geographic Spotlight China’s One-Child Policy 286

Insights Shifting Cultivation 289

Geography of the Sacred The Korean Village 290

Geography of the Sacred The Sacred Cow 294

Insights Outsourcing 300

Geography of Energy The Spratly Islands 302

MODULE 7.1 MODULE 7.1

COMPLEX AND POPULOUS SOUTH ASIA 309

7.1.1 The Cultural Foundation 310

7.1.2 Geographic Consequences of Colonialism

and Partition 312

7.1.3 Natural Regions and Resources 314

7.1.4 India: Power, Courage, and Confidence 320

7.1.5 Pakistan: Faith, Unity, and Discipline 326

7.1.6 Vulnerable Bangladesh 328

7.1.7 Nepal and Bhutan: Mountain Kingdoms 328

7.1.8 Sri Lanka: Resplendent and Troubled 330

7.1.9 The Laid-Back, Low-Lying Maldives 331

Problem Landscape Kashmir 314

The World’s Great Rivers Indus, Ganges,

Brahmaputra 316

Regional Perspective Keeping Malthus at Bay 321

Insights The Caste System 325

MODULE 7.2 MODULE 7.2

SOUTHEAST ASIA: FROM SUBSISTENCE

FARMING TO SEMICONDUCTORS 334

7.2.1 Area, Population, and Environment 335

7.2.2 Livelihood Patterns 337

7.2.3 Myanmar (Burma) 344

7.2.4 Thailand 347

7.2.5 Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos 349

7.2.6 Malaysia and Singapore 355

7.2.7 Indonesia and Timor-Leste 357

7.2.8 The Philippines 360

Natural Hazards The Great Tsunami of 2004 340

Insights Rubber 342

Regional Perspective The Association of Southeast

Asian Nations (ASEAN) 345

Regional Perspective Sex, Drugs, and Health in

Southeast Asia 346

Ethnic Geography The Boat People 351

The World’s Great Rivers The Mekong 353

Problem Landscape The Balkanization

of Indonesia? 360

MODULE 7.3 MODULE 7.3

CHINA: THE GIANT 365

7.3.1 Accomplishment, Subjugation, and Revolution 366

7.3.2 The Setting 367

7.3.3 Issues in Chinese Agriculture 375

7.3.4 China’s Industrial Geography 379

7.3.5 China’s Urban and Transportation Geography 383

7.3.6 Taiwan 387

7.3.7 Mongolia 388

Regional Perspective The Silk Road 371

Ethnic Geography Han Colonization

of China’s “Wild West” 372

Problem Landscape The Three Gorges Dam 376

Medical Geography Deadly Viruses:

Origins and Diffusion 380

Insights Mao’s Cultural Revolution 383

MODULE 7.4 MODULE 7.4

JAPAN AND THE KOREAS: ADVERSITY AND

PROSPERITY IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC 391

7.4.1 The Japanese Homeland 392

7.4.2 Historical Background 398

7.4.3 Japan’s Postwar Miracle 401

7.4.4 Japanese Industry 403

7.4.5 The Industrious People behind

Japanese Industry 403

7.4.6 Unfortunately Located Korea 406

7.4.7 Contrasts between the Two Koreas 408

7.4.8 Sunshine for Korea? 411

Natural Hazards Living on the Ring of Fire 396

Insights The Law of the Sea 407

CHAPTER 8

A GEOGRAPHIC PROFILE OF OCEANIA 414

8.1 Area and Population 415

8.2 Physical Geography and Human Adaptations 416

8.3 Cultural and Historical Geographies 422

8.4 Economic Geography 428

8.5 Geopolitical Issues 430

Insights Deforestation and the Decline

of Easter Island 423

Perspectives from the Field Aborigines and

Missionaries in Northwestern Australia 426

Regional Perspective Foreign Militaries in the Pacific:

A Mixed Blessing 430

MODULE 8.1 MODULE 8.1

AUSTRALIA AND NEW ZEALAND: PROSPEROUS

AND NO LONGER SO REMOTE 435

8.1.1 Peoples and Populations 436

8.1.2 The Australian Environment 437

8.1.3 Australia’s Natural Resource-Based Economy 442

8.1.4 New Zealand: Pastoral and Urban 447

8.1.5 Antarctica: The White Continent 450

Ethnic Geography Australia’s Indigenous People

Reclaim Rights to the Land 438

Biogeography Exotic Species on the

Island Continent 442

Regional Perspective Australia and New Zealand:

Less British, More Asian-Pacific 448

CHAPTER 9

A GEOGRAPHIC PROFILE

OF SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA 454

9.1 Area and Population 455

9.2 Physical Geography and Human Adaptations 457

9.3 Cultural and Historical Geographies 467

9.4 Economic Geography 473

9.5 Geopolitical Issues 481

Medical Geography HIV and AIDS in Africa 464

Regional Perspective The Great Rift Valley 466

Insights Africa’s Greatest Conservationist 468

Biogeography Crop and Livestock Introductions:

“The Curse of Africa” 476

Problem Landscape Cleaning Up the

Dirty Diamonds 478

Insights Microcredit 479

MODULE 9.1

THE ASSETS AND AFFLICTIONS

OF THE SUB-SAHARAN COUNTRIES 485

9.1.1 The Sahel: On the Shore of a Great Desert 486

9.1.2 West Africa: Populous and Struggling to Leave

Strife Behind 489

9.1.3 West Central Africa: Colonial

“Heart of Darkness” 494

9.1.4 East Africa: Mauled but Healing 498

9.1.5 The Horn of Africa: Refuge for Judaism,

Christianity, Islamist Militancy 502

9.1.6 Southern Africa: Resource-Rich, Finally Free 506

9.1.7 The Indian Ocean Islands: Former Edens 515

Regional Perspective Drought and Desertification

in the Sahel 488

Problem Landscape The Poor, Oil-Rich Delta

of Nigeria 491

Natural Hazards Deadly Lakes 496

CHAPTER 10

A GEOGRAPHIC PROFILE

OF LATIN AMERICA 521

10.1 Area and Population 522

10.2 Physical Geography and Human Adaptations 527

10.3 Cultural and Historical Geographies 531

10.4 Economic Geography 538

10.5 Geopolitical Issues 546

Natural Hazards El Niño 532

Insights Fair Trade Fruits 540

Problem Landscape The Troubled Fields

of Land Reform 542

Regional Perspective The North American

Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) 544

Geography of Drug Trafficking The War

on Drugs 548

MODULE 10.1 MODULE 10.1

MIDDLE AMERICA:

LAND OF THE SHAKING EARTH 553

10.1.1 Mexico: Higher and Further 554

10.1.2 Central America: Beyond Banana Republics 561

10.1.3 The Caribbean Islands: From Rastafari

and Reggae to Baseball and Communism 565

Regional Perspective The Panama Canal 564

MODULE 10.2 MODULE 10.2

SOUTH AMERICA: STIRRING GIANT 572

10.2.1 The Andean Countries: Lofty and Troubled 573

10.2.2 Brazil: Populous Rain-Forested Giant 581

10.2.3 The Southern Midlatitude Countries:

South America’s “Down Under” 590

Geography of Energy Venezuela’s

Petroleum Politics 575

The World’s Great River The Amazon, Its Forest,

and Its People 582

Insights The Versatile Soybean 589

CHAPTER 11

A GEOGRAPHIC PROFILE OF THE UNITED

STATES AND CANADA 597

11.1 Area and Population 598

11.2 Physical Geography and Human Adaptations 601

11.3 Cultural and Historical Geographies 607

11.4 Economic Geography 617

11.5 Geopolitical Issues 626

Geographic Spotlight The Modern-Day

Slave Trade 601

Natural Hazards Nature’s Wrath in the

United States 602

Geography of Energy Energy Alternatives

in the United States 619

Insights Trade Barriers and Subsidies 623

MODULE 11.1 MODULE 11.1

CANADA: FROM SEA TO SEA 630

11.1.1 Canada’s General Traits 631

11.1.2 Atlantic Canada: Hardscrabble Living 631

11.1.3 Canada’s Core Region: Ontario and Québec 635

11.1.4 The Prairie Region: Oil, Wheat,

and Wilderness 637

11.1.5 The Vancouver Region and British Columbia 638

11.1.6 The North: Lots of Land, Few People 639

11.1.7 Greenland: A White Land 643

Problem Landscape Overfished Waters 634

Problem Landscape The Québec Separatist

Movement 636

Problem Landscape Arctic Dreams 642

MODULE 11.2 MODULE 11.2

THE UNITED STATES: OUT OF MANY, ONE 646

11.2.1 The Northeast: Center of Power 647

11.2.2 The South: Dixieland 655

11.2.3 The Midwest: Big River Country 662

11.2.4 The West: Booming and Thirsty 670

11.2.5 Alaska and Hawaii: The Newest States 680

Insights Adaptive Reuse and Gentrification 656

Natural Hazards Hurricane Katrina

and Its Aftermath 664

Geographic Spotlight The Changing Geography

of American Settlement 668

Geography of Energy The Arctic National

Wildlife Refuge 683

Glossary G-1

Pronunciation Guide PG-1

Index I-1

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