مركبات النقل البري في مصر
دراسة في جغرافية النقل
د. محمد صبحي إبراهيم
مدرس الجغرافيا بجامعة المنصورة
مجلة كلية الآداب، العدد (69)، جامعة الزقازيق، أبريل/ يونيو 2014
تنبع أهمية هذا البحث من محاولة تسليط الضوء على مركبات النقل بأنواعها في مصر، وتطورها وتوزيعها الجغرافي للوقوف علی مدى کفايتها وكفاءتها و أهم مشكلاتها، وتعددت أهداف الدراسة ومنها: دراسة التطور التاريخي للمركبات في مصر وأهم معالمه، ودراسة التوزيع الجغرافي للمركبات وكثافتها في مصر وأهم أسبابه وضوابطه، وفي سبيل ذلك اعتمدت هذه الدراسة على المنهج الوصفي التحليلي والمنهج الوثائقي بالاستعانة ببعض الأدوات الإحصائية و أدوات التحليل المكاني، ودرس هذا البحث موضوعات: تطور أعداد المرکبات والتوزيع الجغرافي للمركبات وكثافتها على مستوى محافظات الجمهورية، والعوامل الجغرافية المؤثرة في المركبات، وبعض الجوانب الاقتصادية للمركبات، وبعض مشكلاتها، وخلصت الدراسة إلى عدة نتائج منها تزايد أعداد المركبات في مصر بمعدل يفوق معدل زيادة أعداد السكان وإمكانيات الطرق و أماكن الانتظار، و واردات مصر من المركبات تفوق صادراتها، نظراً لزيادة الطلب وقلة الإنتاج المحلي، وتواجه المركبات في مصر مشكلات عديدة كمشكلات التصنيع ومنها قلة التمويل ومشكلة صرف المخلفات، كما يترتب عليها آثار بيئية عديدة منها التلوث البيئي وحوادث المرور والازدحام و غيرها، ومن توصيات الدراسة ضرورة التوسع في أنظمة النقل العام بالمدن و بينها، ورفع كفاءتها وهو ما يقلل الاعتماد على السيارة بشكل كبير
The importance of this research is to study all kinds of vehicles in Egypt, and its evolution and geographical distribution to determine the adequacy, efficiency and the most important problems, and there were many objectives of the study include: the study of the historical development of vehicles, and the geographical distribution of vehicles and its intensity in Egypt and the most important causes and controls, and to achieve these objectives the study relied on the descriptive and historical methods, using some statistical and spatial analysis tools. The study topics is: the evolution of the number of vehicles, and the geographical distribution of vehicles on governorates, and the geographic factors affecting the vehicles, and some of the economic aspects of the vehicles, and some problems, and the study concluded several conclusions including: the number of vehicles increase in Egypt at a rate higher than the rate of increase of population and the possibilities of roads and parking spaces, and the vehicles in Egypt facing many problems like as: manufacturing, including the lack of funding The problem of waste disposal, and consequent many of the environmental impacts as: pollution and traffic accidents and congestion, and others. One of the study's recommendations is: the need for the expansion of public transport systems in cities and among them, and raise their efficiency, which reduces reliance on the car dramatically.
Title: The road transport vehicles in Egypt A geographic study.
Researcher: Mohammed Sobhy Ibraheem Mohammed.
Lecturer, Department of Social Science (geography) Faculty of Education, Mansoura University
Journal: Faculty of Arts Journal, Issue (69), Zagazig University, April/ June 2014.
A single researcher, and not derived from a master's thesis or doctoral dissertation.
This research focuses on the study of road transport vehicles in Egypt, its evolution and geographical distribution to determine the adequacy and efficiency, and to study the most important problems and the geographical factors controls it. The search is about 75 pages of small pieces, 29 tables, 16 figures, 2 indexes, and 63 source and reference Arab and foreign. From the objectives of this research: studying the historical development of vehicles in Egypt, its most important features, the geographical distribution and intensity in Egypt, the most important causes, and some aspects the economics of the vehicles in Egypt. The study period extending to 53 years, starting from 1961, the start of the available data, and even in 2013. The research relay on the descriptive analytical method and the historical method. The data of the study were analyzed statistically using (SPSS) program and Excel program, and the spatial analysis based on the Arc GIS program Ver.9.3. To achieve the objectives of the research; themes arranged as follows: First: The evolution of vehicles in Egypt:
1. Quantitative change during the period (1961 to 2013).
2. Qualitative change during the period (1961-2013). (A) The evolution of passenger vehicles. (D) The evolution of the of goods vehicles: (C) The evolution of other vehicles: Secondly: The geographical distribution of vehicles in Egypt:
1. Geographical distribution of vehicles in the governorates:
2. Qualitative distribution of vehicles and their relative importance:
3. Distribution of vehicles by type of fuel used and the relative importance:
4. Density of vehicles in the governorates in 2012:
(A) The vehicles density to the areas.
(B) The vehicles density to population.
(C) The vehicles density to roads lengths.
Third: The relations between the vehicles and some affecting geographical factors:
1. The temporal relationship (vertical):
(B) Paved roads lengths.
(C) Rail network
(D) Other types of vehicles:
2. Spatial relationship (horizontal): Fourth: The increase of the vehicles number problems:
1. Problems of parking areas.
2. Road problems.
3. Age of vehicles.
4. Environmental pollution problems.
5. Traffic congestion problems.
6- Traffic accidents in Egypt.
7. Increasing energy consumption.
8- Manufacturing problems: Future look:
The most important results:
• There is a rapid and cumulative increase in the number of vehicles in Egypt, due to multiple reasons, including economic and customs policies about the production and importing vehicles in Egypt.
• The numbers of vehicles increases faster than the rate of population increase, the possibilities of roads, and parking areas, and are affected by some factors including economic and social.
• There is variation in the spatial distribution of vehicles at the governorates level; where is concentrated towards 57.4% of the vehicles on the 9.5% of the area, and Cairo governorate is the most important it have about 30% of the vehicles.
• There is variation in the qualitative distribution of vehicles; passenger vehicles represent 81.3% of the total number of vehicles, compared to 15.5% for goods vehicles, and 3.2% for other vehicles, also the distribution of vehicles varies according to the type of fuel used, where gasoline vehicles represent 67.7% versus 23.3% for vehicles diesel fuel, and 9.1% for natural gas vehicles.
• The number and distribution of vehicles affected by geographical factors, foremost among which: population numbers and lengths of paved roads.
• In Egypt there are car assembly industries, and Egypt's production of vehicles but increasingly small compared to the global production.
• Egypt's imports exceed its exports of vehicles, due to increased demand and the lack of national production.
• Vehicles in Egypt are facing many problems as: manufacturing problems including the lack of funding and the problem of waste disposal, as many of them result in environmental effects like: pollution, accidents, traffic congestion and others. Some recommendations:
• A serious field study about purchasing behavior of cars and the most important causes.
• Use of natural gas for cars to cut costs and reduce environmental pollution.
• Expansion the public transport systems in cities and among them, and the provision of underground transport services and improve its efficiency, especially in Cairo, Giza and Alexandria and major cities as: Tanta, Zagazig and Mansoura etc., which reduces dependence on the car dramatically.
• Review agreements and laws of the importation, operation, and ownership of vehicles, and adjusted to suit the future plans, to resolve the current problems of vehicles.